Common Names in English:
Bald Brome, Smooth Brome, Spiked Brome-Grass
or with rhizomes. Leaf sheaths
; leaf blades linear
, usually flat; ligules membranous. Panicles spreading
, branches scabrid
, elongated or arched. Spikelets
large, with 3 to many florets
, upper florets often sterile
; rachilla disarticulating
and between florets, scabrid or shortly hairy
; glumes unequal or subequal
, shorter than spikelet, lanceolate or nearly ovate
, (1-) 5-7-veined, apex acute or long acuminate or aristiform
; floret callus glabrous
or both sides thinly hairy; lemmas rounded
on back or compressed
to keel, 5-9(-11) -veined, herbaceous or nearly leathery, margins
often membranous, apex entire or 2-toothed; awn
or arising from lemma between teeth slightly under apex, rarely awnless or 3-awned; palea narrow, usually shorter than lemma, keels ciliate
or scabrid. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Ovary apex with appendage
; styles 2, arising from lower front of appendage. Caryopsis oblong
, apex hairy, adaxial
. Chromosomes large, x = 7, 2n = 14, 28, 42, 56, 70.
About 150 species: temperate regions , mainly in the N hemisphere, also on mountains in the tropics; 55 species (eight endemic, at least three introduced ) in China.
Species Bromus racemosus
Annual . Culms slender, loosely tufted , erect or ascending , 25-80(-100) cm tall, glabrous or pubescent , 2-5-noded. Leaf sheaths hairy toward base , upper sheaths sparsely hairy or glabrous; leaf blades 5-30 cm × 2-8 mm, pubescent; ligule 1-3 mm. Panicle erect, narrow, 12-15 × 2-4 cm, sometimes nodding at maturity; branches 2-6 per node, lowest up to 6 cm, each bearing 1-4 spikelets . Spikelets oblong , slightly compressed , 12-20 × 4-6 mm, florets 5-10, overlapping; glumes unequal, apex acuminate, lower glume 4-6 mm, 3-veined, upper glume 4.5-7 mm, 5-7-veined; lemmas elliptic , 6-10 × 2-2.5 mm in side view , scabrid , 7-9-veined, apex obtuse , awned from ca. 1 mm below apex; awn 3-9 mm, straight; palea shorter than lemma. Anthers 1.5-3 mm. Caryopsis thin, flat, ca. 7 × 2 mm, slightly shorter than palea. Fl. and fr. Jun-Aug. 2n = 14, 28, 56. [source]
River valleys, moist grasslands, roadsides, grassy places; 2700-4400 m. .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
B. commutatus Schrader • B. mollis Linnaeus var. com-mutatus (Schrader) Sanio • B. mutabilis F. W. Schultz var. com-mutatus (Schrader) F. W. Schultz • B. popovii Drobow • B. racemosus commutatus (Schrader) Maire & Weiller • B. racemosus var. commutatus (Schrader) Cosson & T. Durand • B. squarrosus Linnaeus var. racemosus (Linnaeus) Regel • Brachypodium commutatum (Schrader) P. Beauvois • Bromus arvensis Linnaeus var. racemosus (Linnaeus) Neilreich • Bromus arvensis var. racemosus (L.) Neilr. • Bromus hordeaceus L. var. racemosus (L.) Fiori • Bromus mollis L. var. racemosus (L.) Fiori • Bromus Racemosus • Bromus squarrosus L. var. racemosus (L.) Regel • F. racemosus (Linnaeus) Bubani • Forasa-ccus commutatus (Schrader) Bubani • Forasaccus racemosus (L.) Bubani • S. race-mosus (Linnaeus) Parlatore • S. racemosus commutatus (Schrader) Rouy • S. racemosus var. commutatus (Schrader) Husnot. • Serrafalcus commutatus (Schrader) Babington
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Bromus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 88 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. aleutensis (Aleutian Brome) · B. alopecuros (Roadside Brome) · B. alopecuros caroli-henrici (Weedy Brome) · B. anomalus (Nodding Bromegrass) · B. arenarius (Australian Brome) · B. arizonicus (Arizona Brome) · B. arvensis (Field Brome) · B. benekkenii (Brome) · B. berterianus (Chilean Brome) · B. biebersteinii (Meadow Brome) · B. briziformis (Rattlesnake Brome) · B. carinatus (California Brome) · B. catharticus (Prairie Grass) · B. ciliatus (Canadian Brome) · B. ciliatus var. ciliatus (Fringed Brome) · B. ciliatus var. richardsonii (Fringed Brome) · B. commutatus (Hairy Brome) · B. danthoniae (Oat Brome) · B. diandrus (Great Brome) · B. erectus (Erect Brome) · B. erectus erectus (Upright Brome) · B. frondosus (Weeping Brome) · B. grandis (Tall Brome) · B. grossus (Whiskered Brome) · B. hordaceus (Soft Chess) · B. hordeaceus (Soft Brome) · B. hordeaceus hordeaceus (Soft Brome) · B. hordeaceus molliformis (Soft Brome) · B. hordeaceus thominei (Soft Brome) · B. hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus (Downy Brome) · B. hordeaceus subsp. molliformis (Soft Brome) · B. hordeaceus subsp. thominei (Soft Brome) · B. inermis (Awnless Brome) · B. inermis inermis (Awnless Brome) · B. inermis inermis var. inermis (Smooth Brome) · B. inermis pumpellianus (Pumpelly's Brome) · B. inermis pumpellianus var. pumpellianus (Pumpelly's Brome) · B. inermis var. arcticus (Awnless Brome) · B. inermis var. inermis (Smooth Brome) · B. inermis subsp. pumpellianus (Pumpelly's Brome) · B. inermis 'Skinner's Gold' (Skinner's Gold Smooth Brome) · B. japonicus (Japanese Brome) · B. kalmii (Arctic Brome) · B. laevipes (Chinook Brome) · B. lanatipes (Woolly Brome) · B. lanceolatus (Mediterranean Brome) · B. latiglumis (Broad-Glumed Brome) · B. lepidus (Slender Soft Brome) · B. luzonensis (Hoary Brome) · B. madritensis (Compact Brome) · B. madritensis madritensis (Compact Brome) · B. mango (Mango Brome) · B. marginatus (Mountain Brome) · B. marginatus var. marginatus (Large Mountain Brome) · B. maritimus (Seaside Brome) · B. mollis non (Soft Chess) · B. mucroglumis (Arizona Brome) · B. nottowayanus (Nottoway Brome Grass) · B. orcuttianus (Orcutt Brome) · B. orcuttianus var. orcuttianus (Orcutt's Brome) · B. pacificus (Pacific Brome) · B. polyanthus (Basin Brome) · B. polyanthus var. paniculatus (Great Basin Brome) · B. polyanthus var. polyanthus (Great Basin Brome) · B. porteri (Nodding Brome) · B. pseudolaevipes (Coast Range Brome) · B. pubescens (Hairy Wood Brome Grass) · B. racemosus (Bald Brome) · B. ramosus (Bald Brome) · B. ramosus benekenii (Hairy Brome) · B. ramosus ramosus (Hairy Brome) · B. richardsonii var. richardsonii (Richardson´s Brome) · B. rigidus (Ripgut Brome) · B. riparius (Meadow Brome) · B. rubens (Foxtail Brome) · B. scoparius (Broom Brome) · B. secalinus (Bromegrass) · B. sitchensis (Alaska Brome) · B. sitchensis var. sitchensis (Sitka Brome) · B. squarrosus (Corn Brome) · B. squarrosus squarrosus (Corn Brome) · B. stamineus (Roadside Brome) · B. sterilis (Barren Bromegrass) · B. suksdorfii (Suksdorf's Brome) · B. tectorum (Cheat Grass) · B. tectorum var. tectorum (Cheatgrass) · B. texensis (Texas Brome) · B. vulgaris (Columbia Brome)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2660810
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-40516
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2592791
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:75095-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 7855
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 40516
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMPOA15150
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BRRA2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 26047
- Liang Liu, Guanghua Zhu & Klaus Ammann "Bromus". in Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 370, 371. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Bromus racemosus". in Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 373, 374, 383. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 214.830 meters (704.823 feet), Standard Deviation = 298.490 based on 5,224 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]