Common Names in English:
Thread-Leaved Brodiaea, Thread-Leaf Brodiaea, Threadleaf Brodiaea
, from fibrous-coated corms. Leaves 1-6, basal; blade
, crescent-shaped in cross
. Scape solitary, cylindrical, usually slender, occasionally stout, rigid
. Inflorescences umbellate
, open, bracteate
; bracts scarious
, not enclosing flower buds. Flowers: perianth 6-tepaled, distinctly connate
proximally into tube
, shiny, abaxial
perianth usually bluish purple, tube narrowly campanulate
, outer 3 lobes
narrower than inner 3; stamens 3, epitepalous, opposite inner perianth lobes, alternating with 3 staminodia (staminodia absent in B
. orcuttii) opposite outer perianth lobes; filaments
to perianth tube, linear, base
to form triangular flap, or sometimes with abaxial wings or appendages
to style; pistil 3-carpellate; ovary superior, green (purple in B. jolonensis), sessile, 3-locular, ovules several; style erect; stigma 3-lobed, lobes distinctly spreading
and recurved; pedicel erect
at base. Fruits capsular
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds black, rounded
to flattened, coat
with crust with longitudinal
= 6, 8, 12, 16, 18, 20, or 24.
Species 14: w North America including Mexico (Baja California).
Two schools of thought have existed regarding generic limits within the complex of species recognized under Brodiaea, Triteleia, and Dichelostemma: a single large genus (Brodiaea s.l.) with three subgenera (S. Watson 1879; W. L. Jepson 1923-1925; P. A. Munz 1959), or three separate genera (E. L. Greene 1886; R. F. Hoover 1939; G. Keator 1967, 1989, 1993; T. F. Niehaus 1971, 1980). Recent molecular, anatomical, and developmental evidence supports neither of these views . Bloomeria is related to Triteleia, and Brodiaea is closely related to Dichelostemma, with the only hexandrous species, D. capitatum, being sister to the rest of the three-staminate Brodiaea/Dichelostemma clade (R. Y. Berg 1978, 1996; J. C. Pires 2000). This recent evidence also suggests that the sections presently established within Brodiaea are in need of revision ; thus a sectional classification is not utilized in this treatment (R. F. Hoover 1939b; T. F. Niehaus 1971; J. C. Pires 2000).
Polyploidy and ecological specialization to serpentine and other unique substrates is common in Brodiaea, resulting in several rare and endangered species. Eleven of the fourteen species are restricted to California, where the flowering date is highly dependent on the amount of moisture in the early spring . Several species are exceedingly variable. Corms of some species were eaten by native Americans. Among the most important diagnostic characters within Brodiaea are features of the androecium, particularly the size and shape of the staminodia and apical filament appendages. These characters are easily seen with a hand lens in the field . When collecting flowering specimens, one should make a point of mounting a few dissected flowers in a manner that displays these critical characters.
Species Brodiaea filifolia
Scape 20-30 cm, slender. Flowers 14-20 mm; perianth violet-reddish purple, tube narrowly cylindrical, 6-8 mm, transparent, splitting in fruit, lobes widely spreading , 10-14 mm; filaments 0.5-1 mm, base not triangular, with narrow abaxial wings ; anthers linear , 3-5 mm, apex widely notched ; staminodia inconspicuous, reflexed against perianth, purple, threadlike, 2-4 mm, apex subulate ; ovary 4-5 mm; style 6-7 mm; pedicel 1-4 cm. 2n = 24. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May.
; of conservation
concern; 0--300 m.
filifolia is endangered
. It grows on clay soils
at the edges
pools and flood plains
in southern California. It has been extirpated
from Los Angeles and San Bernadino counties and is seriously threatened
by development, vehicles, and agriculture in Riverside
and San Diego
counties. It is in cultivation.
This species typically occurs on gentle hillsides, valleys, and floodplains in semi-alkaline mudflats , vernal pools, mesic southern needlegrass grassland, mixed native-nonnative grassland and alkali grassland plant communities in association with clay , loamy sand, or alkaline silty-clay soils (Peirce and Beauchamp 1979; CDFG 1981; Swinney 1991; Bramlet 1993; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1998). In Orange County and San Diego County, the distribution of thread-leaved brodiaea is highly correlated with specific clay soil series. Localities occupied by this species are frequently intermixed with, or near, vernal pool complexes, such as at the Santa Rosa Plateau and in the Upper Salt Creek drainage southwest of Hemet in Riverside County (CNDDB 1998, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1998).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,278 meters (0 to 4,193 feet).
Unlike many species of Brodiaea, members
of the subgenus
do not reproduce vegetatively and rely on seed germination (Niehaus
1971). Thread-leaved brodiaea blooms from March through June (Skinner
and Pavlik 1994). The bell-shaped
flowers are violet in color (Munz
1974). Brodiaea are self-incompatible and pollination between individuals
must take place in order
seed (Niehaus 1971). Niehaus
(1971) found that a broad spectrum of insects visit Brodiaea flowers
but only tumbling flower beetles (Mordellidae) and sweat bees (Helictidae)
were found to transport pollen between flowers. On the Santa Rosa
, Gary Bell found that native
bees were faithful to specific
brodiaea species but the European honeybee was not (G. Bell, the
Nature Conservancy, pers. comm.
1997, cited in U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service 1998; S. Moray, California Department of Fish and Game Endangered
Plant Program, in litt., 1995). Sexual reproduction may occur in
“pulses” when the dominant cover
of European annuals
is reduced as
a result of fire suppression (S. Moray, in litt., 1995).
Dispersal : Upon maturity, the ovaries three lobes split, revealing many small (2 to 2.5 mm long) black seeds (Munz 1974). The seeds are then dispersed as wind rattles the capsules and releases the seeds (Smith 1997).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Asparagaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- Suborder: Asparagineae () -
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Hookera filifolia (S. Watson) Greene
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2005
Genetics: Thread-leaved brodiaea is one of 13 species of the genus Brodiaea, a genus largely restricted to California (Keator 1993). Brodiaea is variously assigned to the family Liliaceae, or the segregate families Alliaceae or Themidaceae (Dahlgren, et al. 1985; Keator 1993; Fay and Chase 1996). Thread-leaved brodiaea belongs to the subgenus Filifoliae, a small group of three species (Niehaus 1971). Its closest relative is Orcutt’s brodiaea, a species thread-leaved brodiaea occurs sympatrically within several locations. The two species hybridize and readily form hybrid swarms (Niehaus 1971: Boyd, et al. 1992). The mitotic chromosome number of thread-leaved brodiaea is n=12 (Niehaus 1971). This species is known to also hybridize with dwarf brodiaea (B. terrestris) at the Santa Rosa Plateau and possibly also hybridizes with B. jolonensis (Skinner and Pavlik 1994; Recovery Workshop Seminar 1995; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1994).
Members of the genus Brodiaea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 24 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. appendiculata (Appendage Brodiaea) · B. californica (California Brodiaea) · B. californica var. californica (California Brodiaea) · B. californica var. leptandra (California Brodiaea) · B. coronaria (Cascade Lily) · B. coronaria coronaria (Crown Brodiaea) · B. coronaria rosea (Indian Valley Brodiaea) · B. coronaria subsp. rosea (Indian Valley Brodiaea) · B. elegans (Elegant Brodiaea) · B. elegans hooveri (Harvest Brodiaea) · B. elegans subsp. hooveri (Hoover's Brodiaea) · B. filifolia (Thread-Leaved Brodiaea) · B. insignis (Kaweah Brodiaea) · B. jolonensis (Chaparral Brodiaea) · B. kinkiensis (San Clemente Island Brodiaea) · B. minor (Dwarf Brodiaea) · B. orcuttii (Orcutt's Brodiaea) · B. pallida (Chinese Camp Brodiaea) · B. purdyi (Sierra Brodiaea) · B. stellaris (Star-Flower Brodiaea) · B. terrestris (Crown Brodiaea) · B. terrestris kernensis (Dwarf Brodiaea) · B. terrestris terrestris (Dwarf Brodiaea) · B. terrestris subsp. kernensis (Kern Brodiaea)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 611.
- A flora of California, by Willis Linn Jepson. San Francisco, Calif., Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, 1909- url p. 288, p. 288.
- American plants. .. [Descriptions, bibliographical notes, synonymy, and other information, comp. from many sources] Charles Russell Orcutt, editor. San Diego, Calif., -1910. url p. 518.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 407.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1971- url p. 11.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 201.
- Occasional papers - San Diego Society of Natural History. 1949 San Diego, The Society. url p. 30, p. 30.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 208.
- Niehaus, T. F. 1971. A biosystematic study of the genus Brodiaea (Amaryllidaceae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 60.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- "Brodiaea filifolia". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 322, 325. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 28, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, Understanding the Plants and Animals of Western Riverside County MSHCP University of California, Berkeley and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Jan 19, 2007.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 26, 2008)
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
- World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Release date: November 27, 2009
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662464
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-301072
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:532041-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 415084
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42806
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 36736-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMLIL0C050
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species Identifier: Q09H
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HOFI4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 25983
- J. Chris Pires "Brodiaea". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 20, 53, 55, 321, 326, 328, 331, 332, 336, 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Brodiaea filifolia". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 322, 325. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 342.800 meters (1,124.672 feet), Standard Deviation = 769.680 based on 5 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]