Common Names in English:
Island Grapefern, Makou
or epiphytic. Roots
lacking root hairs
, unbranched or with a few narrow lateral
branches, in 1 species dichotomously branched. Stems simple
, unbranched, upright, with eustelic vascular tissue. Leaf bases
, forming sheath
, open or fused, surrounding successive leaf primordia; primordia glabrous
or with long, uniseriate
. Leaves 1(--2) per stem, with common stalk
, photosynthetic portion (trophophore) and fertile
, spore-bearing portion (sporophore
) . Trophophore blades
to simple, rarely absent, veins anastomosing or free
, pinnate, or arranged like ribs
of fan. Indument
absent or of widely scattered
, long, uniseriate hairs, especially on petioles
and rachises. Sporophores pinnately branched or simple. Sporangia exposed or embedded
, 0.5--1.5 mm diam., thick-walled, with thousands of spores. Spores all 1 kind, trilete, thick-walled, surface rugate, tuberculate
rods usually higher than wide), sometimes joined in delicate network
, mostly with ± warty surface. Gametophytes not green, usually fleshy
Genera 5, species ca. 70--80 (3 genera, 38 species in the flora ) : nearly worldwide.
Ophioglossaceae comprise two clearly defined subfamilies, Botrychioideae and Ophioglossoideae, which are sometimes recognized as distinct families. Ophioglossaceae may be only distantly related to the ferns and more closely related to Marattiales and certain seedplants, especially Cycadales, in such characteristics as stelar type, cork cambium , dilated leaf bases, conduplicate vernation , intercalary leaf growth, collateral leaf traces , circular-bordered pits, eusporangia, massive gametophytes, sunken archegonia, and presence in some species of endoscopic embryos.
occasionally branching laterally, yellowish to black, 0.5--2 mm diam., smooth
or with corky ridges
, not proliferous. Stems upright, forming caudex
to 5 mm thick; gemmae absent or minute, spheric. Trophophores ascending
to perpendicular to stem, sessile or stalked
, or deltate, simple
to 5-pinnate, 4--25 × 1--35 cm. Pinnae (reduced to segments in many species) spreading
to ascending, fan-shaped to lanceolate to linear; margins
entire to dentate
, apex rounded
or acute; veins free
, arranged like ribs
of fan or pinnate. Sporophores
normally 1 per leaf, 1--3-pinnate, long-stalked, borne at ground
level to high on common stalk
with sporangia sessile to short-stalked, almost completely exposed, borne in 2 rows
on pinnate (except in very small plants) sporophore branches. Gametophytes broadly ovate
, unbranched, 1--3 × 1--10 mm.
=44, 45, 92.
Species 50--60: nearly worldwide.
The greatest diversity in Botrychium is at high latitudes and high elevations , mostly in disturbed meadows and woods . Extensive field and laboratory research has revealed unexpected diversity in North America, especially in subg. Botrychium. For accurate identification, a substantial number of carefully spread and pressed leaves are usually needed because of the large amount of variation found in most species. Taking many samples will have little effect on the population as long as the underground shoots and roots are left intact. Approximately a dozen sterile hybrid combinations have been encountered, but they are very infrequent.
The range maps south of Canada reflect mostly local occurrences at high elevations (1000--3700 m ) in the mountains. The ranges for many of the species are probably more extensive and continuous than indicated by our present knowledge.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- D.H. Scott
- (R. Brown, 1810) C. Agardh, 1822
- adder's tongue
- O. Swartz, 1801
- Grapefern, moonwort, botryche [Latin botry, bunch (of grapes), and - oides, like; in reference to the sporangial clusters]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Botrychium subbifoliatum Brack.
- Specific epithet: subbifoliatum - Brack.
- Genus: Botrychium () - O. Swartz, 1801 - Grapefern, moonwort, botryche [Latin botry, bunch (of grapes), and - oides, like; in reference to the sporangial clusters]
- Family: Ophioglossaceae () - (R. Brown, 1810) C. Agardh, 1822 - adder's tongue
- Order: Ophioglossales () - Link
- Class: Psilotopsida () - D.H. Scott
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Botrychium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 41 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. acuminatum (Moonwort) · B. ascendens (Trianglelobe Moonwort) · B. biternatum (Southern Grapefern) · B. boreale (North-Western Moonwort) · B. campestre (Iowa Moonwort) · B. crenulatum (Crenulate Moonwort) · B. dissectum (Cut-Leaf Grape Fern) · B. echo (Reflected Grape Fern) · B. gallicomontanum (Frenchman's Bluff Grapefern) · B. hesperium (Western Moonwort) · B. jenmanii (Alabama Grape Fern) · B. lanceolatum (Lance-Leaf Moonwort) · B. lanceolatum angustisegmentum (Lanceleaf Grapefern) · B. lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum (Lanceleaf Grapefern) · B. lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (Lance-Leaved Moonwort) · B. lineare (Narrowleaf Grapefern) · B. lunaria (Common Moonwort) · B. lunarioides (Winter Grape-Fern) · B. matricariifolium (Chamomile Grape-Fern) · B. minganense (Mingan Island Grapefern) · B. montanum (Mountain Moonwort) · B. mormo (Little Goblin Moonwort) · B. multifidum (Broadleaf Grapefern) · B. oneidense (Blunt-Lobe Grape-Fern) · B. pallidum (Pale Botrychium) · B. paradoxum (Peculiar Moonwort) · B. pedunculosum (Stalked Moonwort) · B. pinnatum (Northern Grapefern) · B. pseudopinnatum (False Daisyleaf Moonwort) · B. pumicola (Crater Lake Grapefern) · B. robustum (Leathery Grapefern) · B. rugulosum (Rugulose Grape-Fern) · B. simplex (Least Grape-Fern) · B. simplex var. simplex (Little Grapefern) · B. spathulatum (Spathulate Botrychium) · B. subbifoliatum (Island Grapefern) · B. virginianum (Rattlesnake Fern) · B. watertonense (Waterton Grapefern) · B. boreale (Scott's Spleenwort) · B. × watertonense (Waterton Grapefern) · B. zeylanicum (Kamraj)
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- Botanical bulletin / Honolulu: Division of Forestry, 1911-1919. url p. 10.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 39 1912 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url plate 18, p. 234, p. 52, p. 536.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 22 1999 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 146, p. 351.
- Flora of the Hawaiian islands: a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams /by William Hillebrand; annotated and published after the author's death by W.F. Hillebrand. 1888 London: New York: Williams & Norgate; B. Westermann, 1888. url p. 641.
- Global Biodiversity: status of the Earth's living resources WCMC url p. 215.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 310.
- Revised list of Hawaiian Pteridophyta, Honolulu, Hawaii, The Museum, 1925. url p. 6.
- Synopsis filicum; or, A synopsis of all known ferns, including the Osmundaceae, Schizaeaceae, Marattiaceae, and Ophioglossaceae (chiefly derived from the Kew herbarium) Accompanied by figures representing the essential London, R. Hardwicke, 1874. url .
- Clausen, R.T. 1938. A monograph of the Ophioglossaceae. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club. 19(2): 1--177.
- Wagner, F. S. 1993. Chromosomes of North American grapeferns and moonworts (Ophioglossaceae: Botrychium). Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 19: 83--92.
- Wagner, W.H. Jr. and F.S. Wagner. 1983. Genus communities as a systematic tool in the study of New World Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). Taxon 32: 51--63.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644446
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17193
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13728349
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:35358-2
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17193
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17061550
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPOPH010F0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BOSU
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 25569