The Rubiaceae are trees , shrubs , or infrequently herbs comprising about 450 genera and 6,500 species, including some lianous forms. The leaves are simple and usually entire, and are opposite or sometimes whorled ; stipules are present and interpetiolar . The flowers are nearly always bisexual and actinomorphic , often heterostylous, and usually are in cymose inflorescences. The calyx is mostly somewhat reduced and 4-5-lobed or sometimes the lobes are obsolete or rarely one of them greatly expanded and brightly colored . The sympetalous corolla is mostly 4-5-lobed, occasionally with 3 or up to 10 lobes. The androecium consists of as many stamens as corolla lobes and is adnate to the corolla tube or epigynous zone, alternate with the lobes. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 or seldom more carpels, a single style, and a nearly always inferior ovary with the number of locules equaling the number of carpels, each with 1-many axile ovules. An epigynous nectary disk is usually present. The fruit is variable, sometimes forming multiples . -- Gerald Carr.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Borreria
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- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 371, p. 376, p. 396.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 574.
- An enumeration of the vascular plants known from Surinam: together with their distribution and synonymy / by A. Pulle. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1906. url p. 449, p. 514.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 130.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 372.
- Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College. New York: Columbia College, 1886-1896. url p. 237.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 40 2000 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 130.
- Flora Costaricensis / William Burger, editor. 33 1993 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1993. url p. 328.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 373.
- Flora of Guatemala / by Paul C. Standley and Louis O. Williams. 24 1975 Chicago, ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1975. url p. 20.
- Flora of Jamaica, containing descriptions of the flowering plants known from the island, by William Fawcett and Alfred Barton Rendle. London.Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1910- url p. 123, p. 125.
- Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 73 1999 [St. Louis, Mo.]: Missouri Botanical Garden, 1978- url p. 21.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 393.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 288.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 78 1927 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 28.
- The conservation and sustainable use of the crop genetic resources of Central America. A Darwin initiative funded project. Report on phase 1 WCMC url p. 35.
- The flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, by Paul C. Standley. City of Washington, The Smithsonian Institution, 1927. url p. 30.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 200, p. 200.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The flora of the Dutch West Indian islands. .. by I. Boldingh. Leyden, E. J. Brill, 1909-14. url p. 104, p. 181.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.