Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Zhi Li Huang Xi Xin
Common Names in English:
Erect Spiderling, Erect Tar Vine
Common Names in Portuguese:
, or sometimes spiny
. Leaves opposite, alternate, or whorled
; stipules absent; petiole
usually present, well defined; leaf blade
, herbaceous or slightly fleshy
entire. Inflorescences mostly terminal
, less often axillary
, of cymes, umbels, or verticils
, sometimes 1-flowered or fasciculate, often grouped into panicles; bracts often inconspicuous, sometimes forming calyxlike involucre, or large and brightly colored
. Flowers bisexual
, rarely unisexual
or polygamous, actinomorphic
. Perianth constricted
beyond the ovary, base
, closely enclosing ovary which appears inferior, limb petaloid
beyond constriction, tubular
, or campanulate
, apex 5-10-lobed, lobes
in bud, persistent or caducous
. Disk absent. Stamens (1-) 3-5(-many), hypogynous, free
at base, involute
in bud; anthers
2-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovule 1. Style 1; stigma globose
. Fruit an achenelike anthocarp enclosed by persistent perianth, ribbed
, often glandular
. Seed 1; endosperm present; embryo straight or curved
About 30 genera and 300 species: tropics and subtropics, mainly in tropical America; six genera (two introduced ) and 13 species (one endemic, three introduced) in China.
, sometimes suffrutescent
, slender, often glandular
, or pubescent
, from slender and soft or stout, ± woody, and ropelike or fusiform
. Stems procumbent
, or erect
, with or without glutinous
on internodes. Leaves petiolate
, pairs unequal in size in each pair; blade
thin or thick and slightly fleshy
, base symmetric to asymmetric
. Inflorescences terminal
or not clearly pedunculate because of repeated branching from distal axils, diffuse
, and then usually widely cymose
, or thyrsiform, terminal portions cymose, racemose, spicate
, subumbellate, umbellate
, or capitate, rarely borne singly; bracts ± persistent
and not accrescent
, or deciduous, 1-3 beneath
each flower, distinct
, lanceolate, minute, thin, translucent
. Flowers bisexual
; perianth radially symmetric
or slightly bilaterally symmetric, campanulate
or widely funnelform
beyond ovaries, tube
abruptly expanded to (4-) 5-lobed limb; stamens 2-8, included
or exserted; styles at or extending beyond anthers
; stigmas peltate. Fruits fusiform, clavate
, oblong-clavate, obovoid
, or obpyramidal
, stiffly coriaceous
(3-) 5, rounded
, angular, or winglike, smooth
, glabrous or glandular-pubescent
; sulci smooth or rugose
, epidermal surface smooth, papillate
, or minutely pubescent.
Species ca. 40: warm-temperate and tropical regions worldwide.
Numerous authors , particularly those of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, "corrected" to Boerhaavia Linneaus intentional Latinization (Boerhavia) of Boerhaave's name . Boerhavia sometimes includes Anulocaulis, Commicarpus, and Cyphomeris (F. R. Fosberg 1978). At the species level, there is variation that is often difficult to treat taxonomically, especially among annuals of the Sonoran Desert and the pantropical B . diffusa-B. coccinea complex . Many species probably are highly autogamous (R. Spellenberg 2000). P. C. Standleys publications on the family in North America (1909, 1911, 1918) have been the basis for much of the subsequent floristic efforts , with all authors taking a more conservative approach. Nevertheless, careful examination of Boerhavia fruits indicates that some of the entities that Standley proposed represent distinct taxa. For most species in the flora , identification requires mature fruits. In this treatment, the range of ratios of length to width (l/w) of individual fruits of a species is given as a means to relate shape . Fruits from a number of Boerhavia species exude mucilage when wet (J. M. Willson and R. Spellenberg 1977).
Species Boerhavia erecta
Stems usually erect
, sometimes decumbent
, profusely branched
primarily distally, 2-12 dm, minutely puberulent
with bent hairs
basally, usually glabrous
, rarely sparsely puberulent distally. Leaves
mostly in basal 1/2 of plant; larger leaves with petiole
broadly rhombic-ovate, triangular-ovate, ovate
lanceolate, 20-50(-80) × 10-45 mm (distal leaves smaller, proportionately
surface usually glabrous, sometimes minutely puberulent,
usually minutely punctate
surface slightly paler than adaxial,
usually glabrous, sometimes minutely puberulent, usually punctate
with small patches of small brown cells
entire or sinuate
, apex usually acute, less often obtuse or rounded
4-6 times ± evenly,
, usually with sticky internodal
; branches strongly
, terminating in irregular umbellate
or subracemose clusters
of flowers, not all pedicels attaching at same point
borne singly). Flowers: pedicel (0-) 0.3-2.5(-5) mm; bracts
at base of perianth deciduous, usually 2, narrowly to broadly lanceolate,
0.5-1 mm, apex often acuminate; perianth whitish, usually tinged
with pink or purple [bright pink] between lobes
and in tube
beyond constriction, 1-1.5 mm; stamens 2-4, slightly exserted. Fruits
1-11 per cluster, pale
greenish to straw colored
or tan, narrowly
obconic, (2.7-) 3-3.5[-4] × 1.2-1.5 mm (l/w: (2-) 2.3-3.2),
or broadly low conic, glabrous; ribs
5, acute, slightly
to sulci; sulci 0.5-1 times as wide as base of ribs,
slightly to prominently coarsely transverse
rugose, not papillate
Boerhavia erecta occasionally forms mixed populations with B . intermedia without apparent intergradation. Rarely, some specimens seem to combine features of either species, particularly with regard to inflorescence structure. This is especially so in Sonora, Mexico, and in parts of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. The two species bloom simultaneously and are visited by small insects. Given the presumed close relationship and weedy habitats of each, hybridization seems possible. Usually, the two species can be distinguished by the differences in fruit length , the appearance of a crownlike apex of the nearly mature fruits of B. erecta (apex of ridges slightly expanded, apex of fruit slightly conic), and the more precisely constructed terminal umbels of B. intermedia. Both species, particularly B. intermedia, may produce entire inflorescences with branches terminating in single flowers. R. E. Woodson Jr. and H. J. Kidd (1961) suggested that B. erecta hybridizes with the perennial B. diffusa. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Disturbed areas, gardens, road and railroad rights-of-way, stream beds ; 0-1700 m [probably much higher in tropics].
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Duration: Annual , Perennial
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Nyctaginaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - four o'clocks, nyctaginacées
- Suborder: Phytolaccineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Elliott Publication : Sketch Bot. S. Carolina [Elliott] 1: 41 1816 [26 Sep 1816]
Members of the genus Boerhavia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. anisophylla (Wine Spiderling) · B. capitata (Scarlet Muskflower) · B. coccinea (Red Boerhaavia) · B. coulteri (Coulter Spiderling) · B. diffusa (Red Spiderling) · B. erecta (Erect Spiderling) · B. gracillima (Bush Spiderling) · B. herbstii (Alena) · B. intermedia (Five-Wing Spiderling) · B. linearifolia (Narrow-Leaf Spiderling) · B. mathisiana (Mathis Spiderling) · B. megaptera (Annual Spiderling) · B. pterocarpa (Apache Pass Spiderling) · B. purpurascens (Purple Spiderling) · B. repens (Anena) · B. scandens (Climbing Spiderling) · B. spicata (Creeping Spiderling) · B. triquetra (Slender Spiderling) · B. wrightii (Large Bract Spiderling)
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- A general index of the agricultural reports of the Patent Office, for twenty-five years, from 1837 to 1861; and of the Department of Agriculture, for fifteen years, from 1862 to 1876. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1879. url p. 194.
- A review of the references to the Hortus malabaricus of Henry Van Rheede Van Draakenstein [sic] Swansea: Printed at the Cambrian-Office, by Murray and Rees, 1839. url p. 35.
- An annotated catalogue of types of the University of Illinois mycological collections (ILL) / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1997. url p. 328.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 661.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 99.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 1 1890-1895 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 351, p. 494.
- Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1884. url p. 134, p. 99.
- Farmer's cyclopedia: a compilation of such bulletins and reports as are indispensable to the practical farmer. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1914. url p. 135.
- Flora Costaricensis / William Burger, editor. 13 1983 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1983. url p. 189.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 453, p. 454.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 264.
- Flora of Jamaica, containing descriptions of the flowering plants known from the island, by William Fawcett and Alfred Barton Rendle. London.Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1910- url p. 147, p. 148.
- Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 16 1989 San Diego, Calif.: The Society, 1931-1989. url p. 48.
- Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, url p. 41.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 494.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 494.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 193.
- Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 1999 [San Diego, Calif.]: San Diego Society of Natural History, 1990- url fig. 7, page 30, p. 30.
- Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1859: agriculture. Washington, D.C.: George Bowman, printer, 1860. url p. 357.
- The Canadian entomologist. Ottawa [etc.]Entomological Society of Canada [etc.] url p. 309, p. 309.
- Lu Dequan. 1996. Nyctaginaceae. In: Tang Changlin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 114.
- Lu Dequan. 1996. Nyctaginaceae. In: Tang Changlin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 114.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2646145
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19671
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13768368
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:604190-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 316875
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19671
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 604189-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDNYC06040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BOER
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 25398
- Dequan Lu & Michael G. Gilbert "Nyctaginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 430. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Richard W. Spellenberg "Boerhavia". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 14, 15, 17, 1. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Boerhavia erecta". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 19, 20, 22, 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 354.890 meters (1,164.337 feet), Standard Deviation = 722.410 based on 516 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]