, mostly terrestrial
, occasionally on rock or epiphytic. Stems creeping
to suberect or ascending
, sometimes climbing
], slender to stout, dictyostelic, scaly
. Leaves monomorphic
, large and coarse
, generally greater than 30 cm, often exceeding 1 m.
, generally more than 2 vascular bundles
arranged in arc, generally scaly at least at base
(reddish) when young, pinnatifid
] to pinnate-pinnatifid or 2-pinnate [rarely decompound
or occasionally bearing scales
or capitate glands
. Rachis frequently grooved
adaxially. Veins of sterile
leaves generally free
, rarely anastomosing, veins of fertile
to form sorus-bearing secondary vein
parallel to costa or costule
commisure), sometimes anastomosing further. Sori elongate
along secondary vein; indusia present [rarely absent], opening along costal side of fertile vein, frequently hidden by dehisced sporangia; sporangial
of 3 rows
. Spores monolete, reniform
present, variously ornamented. Gametophytes green, cordate, sometimes bearing capitate hairs, antheridia and archegonia borne on lower surface.
Genera ca. 10, species ca. 250 (2 genera, 6 species in the flora ) : mostly tropical and south temperate (except Woodwardia, which is north temperate) .
Circumscription of genera is controversial, especially as to placement of those species now included in Blechnum . Characteristics holding the family together include the anastomoses of veins along the axes of the blade to form a series of areoles or a single continuous vein along which the sorus is borne, elongate sori with indusia opening toward midvein , bilateral spores, and chromosome base numbers of generally x = 28--36. Relationships of the family with both dryopteroid and athyrioid ferns have been suggested.
or rarely on rock. Stems creeping
, slender to stout, sometimes climbing
[rarely subarborescent]; scales
brown or black. Leaves monomorphic
or variously dimorphic
, cespitose to scattered
to 1-pinnate, rarely simple
or 2-pinnate. Rachis and costae glabrous
, or hairy
abaxially. Veins free
, often forked
. Sori borne on vascular
parallel to costae, 1 per side, normally uninterrupted, linear
, continuous along length
of costa. Spores with perine
to variously winged
= 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36.
Species ca. 220: mostly tropical , especially Southern Hemisphere.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Burm. Publication : Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) Prodr. Fl. Cap.: 28. 1768 (nomen) 1768 [1 Mar-6 Apr 1768]
Members of the genus Blechnum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 30 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. appendiculatum (Hammock Fern) · B. blechnoides (Salt-Spray Fern) · B. brasiliense (Brazilian Blechnum) · B. cartilagineum (Gristle Fern) · B. chambersii (Lance Water-Fern) · B. chilense (Chilean Hard-Fern) · B. chordatum (Chilean Hard Fern) · B. divergens (Ravine Midsorus Fern) · B. fluviatile (Ray Water-Fern) · B. fragile (Fragile Midsorus Fern) · B. fraseri (Maukurangi) · B. gibbum (Dwarf Tree Fern) · B. gibbum 'Silver Lady' (Dwarf Tree Fern) · B. insularum (Graceful Midsorus Fern) · B. lineatum (Rockbank Midsorus Fern) · B. minus (Hard Water Fern) · B. moorei (Brazilian Tree Fern) · B. novae-zealandiae (Gully Fern) · B. nudum (Fishbone Water-Fern) · B. occidentale (Hammock Fern) · B. occidentale var. pubirachis (New World Midsorus Fern) · B. orientale (Blechnum) · B. patersonii (Strap Water-Fern) · B. penna-marina (Alpine Water-Fern) · B. polypodioides (Narrowleaf Midsorus Fern) · B. serrulatum (Swamp Fern) · B. spicant (Deer Fern) · B. tabulare (Table Mountain Fern) · B. virginicum (Virginia Chain Fern) · B. wattsii (Hard Water Fern)
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- A montane rain-forest; a contribution to the physiological plant geography of Jamaica, Washington, D. C., Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1914. url , , , , .
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- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 367, p. 375.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 21 1997 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 96.
- La biologie des plantes. .. Gene?ve [etc.]E?dition Atar[1917- url .
- Manual of the New Zealand flora. By T. F. Cheeseman. .. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1906. url p. 981.
- New Zealand plants and their story, by L. Cockayne. Wellington, J. Mackay, government printer, 1910. url , , p. 109.
- New Zealand plants and their story. By L. Cockayne. .. Wellington, N.Z., M.F. Marks, Govt. Printer, 1919. url , p. 121, p. 122, p. 236, p. 80.
- New Zealand plants suitable for North American gardens. By Dr. L. Cockayne. .. Panama Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, U. S. A., February-December, 1915. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Government Printer, 1914. url p. 35.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url , , , , p. 100, p. 101, p. 102, p. 103, p. 119, p. 146, p. 15, p. 153, p. 16, p. 16, p. 173, p. 177, p. 178, p. 24, p. 252, p. 253, p. 26, p. 295, p. 70, p. 98, p. 99.
- Silva Capensis, or a description of South African forest trees and arborescent shrubs used for technical and economical purposes. London, Ward, 1862. url p. 27.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 81 1929 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 30.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 42 1914 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 201, p. 43, p. 569.
- The Polypodiaceae of the Philippine Islands. New species of edible Philippine fungi. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1905. url p. 89, p. 90.
- The distribution of the vegetation and flora of New Zealand. By L. Cockayne. Nelson, N.Z., R.W. Stiles & Co., Printers, 1920 url p. 58.
- The ferns (Filicales) treated comparatively with a view to their natural classification, by F. O. Bower. Cambridge [Eng.]University Press, 1923-28. url p. 166, p. 181.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1902.
- The subantarctic islands of New Zealand. Reports on the geo-physics, geology, zoology and botany of the islands lying to the south of New Zealand, based mainly on observations and collections made during an expedition in the government steam Wellington, N.Z.Printed by J. McKay, Gov't. Printer1909 url p. 217, p. 226, p. 228.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url , p. 104, p. 107, p. 122, p. 122, p. 123, p. 135, p. 139, p. 143, p. 155, p. 160, p. 168, p. 169, p. 248, p. 261, p. 280, p. 282, p. 283, p. 284, p. 285, p. 286, p. 319, p. 366, p. 367, p. 376, p. 58, p. 68.
- [Publications] - Bureau of Government Laboratories. Manila, Bureau of Public Printing, 1903-1906. url p. 89.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 28, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5961201
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15237839
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:53168-3
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17058350
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1099790