Common Names in English:
Swamp Fern, Dentate Midsorus Fern, Marsh Fern, Toothed Mid-Sorus Fern, Toothed Midsorus Fern
, mostly terrestrial
, occasionally on rock or epiphytic. Stems creeping
to suberect or ascending
, sometimes climbing
], slender to stout, dictyostelic, scaly
. Leaves monomorphic
, large and coarse
, generally greater than 30 cm, often exceeding 1 m.
, generally more than 2 vascular bundles
arranged in arc, generally scaly at least at base
(reddish) when young, pinnatifid
] to pinnate-pinnatifid or 2-pinnate [rarely decompound
or occasionally bearing scales
or capitate glands
. Rachis frequently grooved
adaxially. Veins of sterile
leaves generally free
, rarely anastomosing, veins of fertile
to form sorus-bearing secondary vein
parallel to costa or costule
commisure), sometimes anastomosing further. Sori elongate
along secondary vein; indusia present [rarely absent], opening along costal side of fertile vein, frequently hidden by dehisced sporangia; sporangial
of 3 rows
. Spores monolete, reniform
present, variously ornamented. Gametophytes green, cordate, sometimes bearing capitate hairs, antheridia and archegonia borne on lower surface.
Genera ca. 10, species ca. 250 (2 genera, 6 species in the flora ) : mostly tropical and south temperate (except Woodwardia, which is north temperate) .
Circumscription of genera is controversial, especially as to placement of those species now included in Blechnum . Characteristics holding the family together include the anastomoses of veins along the axes of the blade to form a series of areoles or a single continuous vein along which the sorus is borne, elongate sori with indusia opening toward midvein , bilateral spores, and chromosome base numbers of generally x = 28--36. Relationships of the family with both dryopteroid and athyrioid ferns have been suggested.
or rarely on rock. Stems creeping
, slender to stout, sometimes climbing
[rarely subarborescent]; scales
brown or black. Leaves monomorphic
or variously dimorphic
, cespitose to scattered
to 1-pinnate, rarely simple
or 2-pinnate. Rachis and costae glabrous
, or hairy
abaxially. Veins free
, often forked
. Sori borne on vascular
parallel to costae, 1 per side, normally uninterrupted, linear
, continuous along length
of costa. Spores with perine
to variously winged
= 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36.
Species ca. 220: mostly tropical , especially Southern Hemisphere.
Species Blechnum serrulatum
Stems stout, horizontal and long-creeping, branched, partly erect
, rarely climbing
. Leaves ± monomorphic
widely spaced, erect to arching
yellow or grayish brown
or light brown, 10-55 cm, finely scaly
to elliptic-lanceolate, 1-pinnate throughout, with conform
pinnae, 25-70 × 5-28 cm, base
Rachis lacking indument
abaxially. Pinnae articulate to rachis except
for terminal pinna, subsessile
to short-stalked; larger pinnae ±
straight, linear to linear-elliptic or linear-lanceolate, 3-15 ×
0.5-1.8 cm, fertile
pinnae often slightly smaller and contracted
; costae with indument of scales
abaxially. 2 n
= 72. [source]
Plants of Blechnum serrulatum occurring in open sun are often dwarfed and stiffly erect. Those occurring in brackish conditions or perennially flooded areas may become hemiepiphytes. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: n/a • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 36-48" tall.
Swamps , marshes, wet prairies, and adjacent moist pine woods or hammocks ; 0 m .
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 39 meters (127 feet).
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Spicanta serrulata Kuntze • Struthiopteris polypodioides (Sw.) Trev.
Publishing author : Rich. Publication : Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 114 1792 [Oct 1792]
Members of the genus Blechnum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 30 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. appendiculatum (Hammock Fern) · B. blechnoides (Salt-Spray Fern) · B. brasiliense (Brazilian Blechnum) · B. cartilagineum (Gristle Fern) · B. chambersii (Lance Water-Fern) · B. chilense (Chilean Hard-Fern) · B. chordatum (Chilean Hard Fern) · B. divergens (Ravine Midsorus Fern) · B. fluviatile (Ray Water-Fern) · B. fragile (Fragile Midsorus Fern) · B. fraseri (Maukurangi) · B. gibbum (Dwarf Tree Fern) · B. gibbum 'Silver Lady' (Dwarf Tree Fern) · B. insularum (Graceful Midsorus Fern) · B. lineatum (Rockbank Midsorus Fern) · B. minus (Hard Water Fern) · B. moorei (Brazilian Tree Fern) · B. novae-zealandiae (Gully Fern) · B. nudum (Fishbone Water-Fern) · B. occidentale (Hammock Fern) · B. occidentale var. pubirachis (New World Midsorus Fern) · B. orientale (Blechnum) · B. patersonii (Strap Water-Fern) · B. penna-marina (Alpine Water-Fern) · B. polypodioides (Narrowleaf Midsorus Fern) · B. serrulatum (Swamp Fern) · B. spicant (Deer Fern) · B. tabulare (Table Mountain Fern) · B. virginicum (Virginia Chain Fern) · B. wattsii (Hard Water Fern)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, CUBA: Herbario de la Academia de Ciencias, La Habana, Cuba: HAC-Pteridophyta
- GBIF-Spain, CUBA:Herbario del Jardín Botánico Nacional, La Habana, Cuba: HAJB-Pteridophyta
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Ilha Solteira, Herbario
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644920
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17864
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13729265
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:53937-3
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17864
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17060330
- MoBot NameID: 26602710
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPBLE01070
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BLIN2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 25324
- Raymond B. Cranfill "Blechnaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Clifton E. Nauman "Blechnum". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Blechnum serrulatum". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 334.820 based on 454 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]