America with attractive pink or white
flowers. The prickly fruits contain 50 or so seeds with a scarlet,
waxy covering that yields a bright yellow dye.
Source of commercial annatto. Originates in the lowlands of S.America. Stands in Guiana along rivers , but maybe v. long cultivated. Ecuadorian Siona Indians cultivate 3 forms of B .orellana. (Outside America, dried capsicum had similar roles). Probably originally domesticated for body paint, against evil, for war, and against insects. Good for lipstick etc. Use for Cloth, Dyes may have arisen later. It is also used as a medicine against epilepsy, fever and VD, and as a chocolate additive in Mexico. Smith et al. (1992) state that, like sweet potato, it was in the Pacific area before the Europeans: Marquesas inhabitants knew about it when first missionaries arrived. Maybe Portuguese took It to eg Timor and Moluccas and thence. Or Peruvian or Polynesian travellers may have dispersed it. However, Burkill (1935) stated that the Spanish took it to the Philippines, and thence it went to the Moluccas. Hindus use it as a dye in their Holi festical, but this use is farily recent; in 1808 its use was said to be 'rapidly spreading over Bengal'. Its use in Europe and USA was replaced by Red Dye no. 3 until that was implicated in cancer and banned. Bixin, identified in 1825, is used to color butter, cheese, chocolate, and still not synthesised.
- Bixa orellana is cultivated for the red, oil-soluble pigment, bixin, which is contained in the seed coat . It is used commercially as a food colorant and as a fabric dye. A paste prepared from the seeds is used as a skin paint (a common name is "lipstick tree") and as a condiment. Other parts of the plant are widely used in tropical America for a variety of medicinal purposes. [source]
- When soaked or boiled in water, compounds from the Anatto's leaves are used to treat a variety of ailments, such as diarrhea , dysentery, sores, rashes, and swellings.
- The red pulp from the fruit and seeds is used as a flavoring and as a dye for products such as lipstick. The dye is also used commercially to color such foods as butter, cheese, and chocolates.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Bengali:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Achiote, Ačiote, Ачиоте
Common Names in Chinese:
Hong Mu, yan Zhi Mu, yan Zhi Shu
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Annatobusken, Orleantræ, Smørfarvetræ
Common Names in Dutch:
Achiote, Anatto, Annotto, Orleaan, Rocou
Common Names in English:
Annato, Achiote, Anatto, Anatto Tree, Annatto, Annatto Plant, Annatto Seeds, Annatto Tree, Arnatto, Arnotto Dye Plant, Lipstick Plant, Lipstick Tree, Lipsticktree, Roucou, Urucum
Common Names in Estonian:
Annatopõõsa, Värvibiksa, Värvibiksa
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Achiote, Annato, Atole, Rocou, Rocouyer, Roucou, Roucou (West Indies), Roucouyer
Common Names in German:
Anatto, Anattosamen, Anattostrauch, Annatto, Annattosamen, Orleansamen, Orleansbaum, Orleansstrauch, Orleanstrauch, Orleanstrauch Orlean-Strauch
Common Names in Hindi:
Induriya, Lathwa, Latkan, Latkana, Sindhuri, इनदुिनया, लालकन
Common Names in Hungarian:
Bjoul, Orleánfa, Orleánfa, Ruku
Common Names in Indonesian:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Achiote, anatoo, anatto, Be-Ni-No-Ki, Beni No Ki, Beninoki, ベニノキ
Common Names in Khmer:
Châm´ Puu, Châm´ Puu Chrâluëk´
Common Names in Korean:
A Chi O Te, a Na To, A-Ci-O-Te, A-Na-To, Achiote, Anato, bik Sa Sok, 아나토, 아치오테
Common Names in Lao:
Dok Kham, Sa Ti
Common Names in Laotian:
Kh´am, Sômz Phuu, Satii
Common Names in Malay:
Jarak Belanda, Kesumba (Indonesia), Kesumba Kling (Indonesia), Kunyit Jawa
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Nepalese:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Açafroa, Açafroa Do Brasil, Açafroeira-Da-Terra, Açafroa-Do-Brasil, Acafroeira Da Terra (Brazil), Anato, Annato (Brazil), Colorau, Urucú, Urucú (Brazil), Urucú Bravo (Brazil), Urucú Da Mata (Brazil), Urucú-Bravo, Urucú, Urucum, Urucum (Brazil)
Common Names in Russian:
Achiote, annato, biksa, Biksa Orel´ina, Pomadnoe Derevo, Аннато, Бикса, Помадное дерево
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Spanish:
Achihuite (Colombia), Achiote, Achiote Caspi, Achiotl (Nahuatl), Achote, Achote (Panama), Annato, Bija, Bija (Puerto Rico), Bijol, Chacuanguarica (Puerto Rico), Onoto (Venezuela), Pumacua (Puerto Rico), Roucou
Common Names in Sundanese:
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Tagalog:
Achuete, Achwete, Asuete, Atsuete, Echuete
Common Names in Tamil:
Cappirā, Jabra, kongaram, Kŏṅkāram, Sappira, கொங்காரம், சப்பிரா
Common Names in Thai:
Kam Sêt, Kam Saed, Kam Tai, kham Faet, kham Ngae, kham Ngo, kham Saet (Bangkok), kham Thai, Sati, คำแสด
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in unspecified:
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Diêù Nhuôm, Ht Iu Màu
Common Names in Visayan:
or small trees
. Young branches and leaves with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate; stipules small, sheathing
swollen at base
and apex; leaf blade
, palmately veined. Inflorescence a terminal
panicle. Flowers bisexual
. Sepals 5, free
, imbricate, with basal, abaxial
, fugacious. Petals 5, imbricate, large and conspicuous
. Stamens many, free or slightly united
at base; anthers
, with 2 inverted
, U-shaped thecae, dehiscing by short, apical slits on bend
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules many on 2 parietal
placentas; style slender; stigmas 2-lobed. Fruit a capsule, loculicidally 2-valved, usually spiny
. Seeds many; testa red, slightly fleshy
; embryo large; cotyledons broad, incurved
at apex; endosperm copious
One genus and five species: native to tropical America; one species widely cultivated in tropical regions , including China.
Molecular data suggest that the genus Diegodendron Capuron, endemic to Madagascar, is related to Bixa and could be included within the Bixaceae.
Species Bixa orellana
Shrubs or small trees , evergreen , 2-5(-10) m tall. Branches brown, densely red-brown glandular hairy . Petiole erect , 2.5-5 cm, glabrous ; leaf blade abaxially pale green, with resinlike gland dots, adaxially deep green, cordate-ovate or triangular-ovate, (5-) 10-25 × (3.3-) 5-13(-16.5) cm, palmately 5-veined, glabrous, base rounded or subtruncate, sometimes slightly cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Panicles robust , often flat-topped, 5-10 cm, densely red-brown scaly and glandular hairy; bracts caducous , leaving scalelike scars . Flowers 4-5 cm in diam.; pedicel 4-12 mm. Sepals obovate , 8-10 × ca. 7 mm, densely red-brown scaly, with glands at base. Petals bright pink, mauve , or white with pale red veins, obovate, (1-) 1.5-3 × 0.8-2 cm. Stamens many; anthers yellow, apically dehiscent . Capsule subglobose or ovoid , slightly laterally compressed , (1.4-) 2-4.5 cm, usually densely purple-brown spiny , rarely smooth ; spines 1-2 cm. Seeds numerous , red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4-5 mm. [source]
Habit: Tree , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September, October, November. • Flower Color: pale pink, pink
Size: 6-8' tall.
Cultivated, tolerant of poor soils but intolerant of shade (Ref. 52416).
Culture: Space 10-12' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Orellana Orellana • Orellana orellana (L.) Kuntze
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 512 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Bixa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Banco Nacional de Germoplasma Vegetal, México
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2648084
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-22251
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:51930-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 7249
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 22251
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 51930-3
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBIX02010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BIOR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 25313
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