Common Names in English:
Burmarigold, Smooth Beggartick, Smooth Beggarticks, Smooth Bidens, Smooth Bur-Marigold
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Heliantheae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that can be readily recognized due to the association of a receptacular bract or chaff scale with each disk floret in the head . The heads usually include bisexual , actinomorphic disk florets with tubular corollas that have 4 or 5 distal lobes and also peripheral zygomorphic female or sometimes sterile florets with strap-shaped corollas that have 3 or fewer distal teeth. However, the ray flowers are sometimes absent and the heads are then discoid , containing only bisexual florets with tubular corollas. The pappus is absent or more commonly ranges from scales to stiff bristles . -- Gerald Carr.
or perennials [shrubs
], 5400 cm. Stems usually 1, usually erect
or 4-angled, often striate
) branched distally or ± throughout. Leaves usually cauline; usually opposite, rarely whorled
, distal sometimes alternate; petiolate
or sessile; blades
), or 13+-pinnatisect or -pinnately lobed
(submerged leaves multifid
. beckii, an aquatic
, serrate, or toothed
, sometimes hirtellous, hispidulous
, pilosulous, puberulent
, scabrellous, or strigillose
. Heads usually radiate
, sometimes ± disciform
, usually in corymbiform
arrays, sometimes in 2s or 3s or borne singly. Calyculi of (3) 513(21+) erect to spreading
, ± herbaceous (sometimes foliaceous
or bracts (sometimes surpassing
phyllaries). Involucres mostly hemispheric
, (1) 412(25+) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, mostly (4) 821(30+) in ± 2 series, usually distinct
, sometimes connate
0.050.1 their lengths
, mostly oblong
to lance-oblong, chartaceous
to membranous or scarious
(usually striate with brownish nerves
, margins usually hyaline
). Receptacles flat or slightly convex
, paleate; paleae usually falling, (usually stramineous
, sometimes yellow to orange, with darker striae) ± flat to slightly navicular
. Ray florets usually 121+ (often 3, 5, 8, or 13), sometimes 0, usually neuter
, sometimes styliferous and sterile
; corollas usually yellow, sometimes white or pinkish. Disc florets (5) 1260(150+), bisexual
; corollas usually yellow to orange, sometimes whitish [purplish], tubes
shorter than throats
(3) 5, ± deltate (staminal
glabrous; style-branch appendages
deltate or lanceolate to subulate
). Cypselae usually obcompressed
to flat, unequally 34-angled, and cuneate to oblanceolate
, sometimes (all or inner) ± equally 4-angled and linear-fusiform, rarely subterete, margins (± corky-winged in B. aristosa, B. cernua, and B. polylepis) usually retrorsely, sometimes patently or antrorsely, barbed
, apices sometimes attenuate, not beaked
[beaked], faces smooth
, striate, or ± tuberculate
, glabrous or hairy
, each sometimes with 2 grooves
; pappi 0, or persistent, of (1) 24(8) usually retrorsely, sometimes antrorsely, barbellate
or ciliate, rarely smooth, awns
. x = 13.
Species 150-250+: widespread, especially in subtropical , tropical , and warm-temperate North America and South America.
Within species of Bidens, leaves may be simple, 1-pinnately compound, or 1-3-pinnatisect or -pinnately or -ternately lobed. For compound leaves, leaflets are described; for leaves mostly 1-pinnately lobed, primary lobes are described; for leaves 2-3-pinnatisect or -pinnately lobed, the ultimate lobes are described. Involucres in Bidens species are subtended by more or less herbaceous (sometimes foliaceous) bractlets or bracts; collectively, they constitute calyculi and they often well surpass the phyllaries. Together, phyllaries constitute involucres. In keys and descriptions here, shapes , heights , and diameters given for involucres are for involucres at flowering; involucres are sometimes notably larger in fruit. In some Bidens species, the outer and inner cypselae are obcompressed (unequally 3-4-angled) to flat, are mostly cuneate to obovate or nearly linear (broadest at or near apices), and are more or less similar except for sizes (outer smaller) ; in other species, the outer cypselae are obcompressed to flat and obovate to cuneate or linear and the inner are more or less equally 4-angled (in cross section ) and linear-fusiform (thickest near their middles and more or less attenuate toward their tips ).
Species Bidens laevis
Annuals (sometimes persisting), (10-) 20-60(-120+) cm. Leaves
(sometimes in 3s or 4s) sessile; blades
, (20-) 50-100(-160+) × (5-) 10-25(-40+) mm, bases
cuneate to rounded
usually coarsely dentate
, apices acute to acuminate, faces
at flowering, sometimes nodding
in fruit) borne singly or
in open, ± corymbiform
arrays. Peduncles (10-) 20-60
Calyculi of 5-7(-9+) erect or spreading
or lanceolate to linear, often foliaceous
or bracts (6-)
10-12(-20+) mm, margins usually ciliate, abaxial
faces glabrous or
. Involucres turbinate
broader, (4-) 6-8(-10+) × 8-12+ mm. Phyllaries 8-12,
or obovate to lance-oblong, (4-) 6-8(-10+) mm (tips
to purplish, as are tips of paleae). Ray florets usually 7-8,
rarely 0; laminae
orange-yellow, (10-) 15-25(-30) mm. Disc florets
(25-) 60-100(-150+) ; corollas yellow to orange-yellow, 3-6.5 mm.
Cypselae blackish, red-brown, or stramineous
flattened or unequally 3-4-angled, ± cuneate, outer 6-8 mm,
inner 8-10 mm, margins retrorsely ciliate or barbed
, apices ±
, faces ± 1-nerved, ± striate
pappi of 2-4 ± erect, retrorsely barbed awns 3-5 mm.
2n = 22, 24. [source]
Bidens laevis and B . cernua are similar in gross appearance ; specimens of one are sometimes misidentified as the other. Perhaps they represent extremes of a single species. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 36-48" tall.
Meadows, marshes, and margins of pools , streams , estuaries; 0-2800 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Tribe: Heliantheae ()
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
B. helianthoides Kunth • B. nashii Small • B. quadriaristata de Candolle • Bidens chrysanthemoides Michaux • Bidens elegans Greene • Bidens nashii Small • Helianthus laevis L. • Helianthus laevis Linnaeus
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: CONABIO, Caribbean Checklist , New Zealand Plant Name Database, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, Euro+Med, Colombia, LCR Editor. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:2941C88A-F669-45F2-A7A4-ABEB02415820
Last scrutiny: 17-Nov-09
Members of the genus Bidens
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 90 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. alba (Romerillo) · B. alba var. radiata (Bidens) · B. alba var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) Ballard ex T.E.Melchert (Bidens) · B. amplectens (Koko'olau) · B. amplissima (Vancouver Island Beggar-Ticks) · B. aristosa (Bearded Beggarticks) · B. asymmetrica (Asymmetrical Beggar-Ticks) · B. aurea (Arizona Beggar-Ticks) · B. bidentoides (Delmarva Beggarticks) · B. bigelovii (Bigelow Beggarticks) · B. bipinnata (Spanish Needles) · B. campylotheca (Campylotheca Bidens) · B. campylotheca campylotheca (Koko`olau) · B. campylotheca pentamera (Viper Beggarticks) · B. campylotheca waihoiensis (Koko`olau) · B. campylotheca subsp. pentamera (Viper Beggarticks) · B. campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (Waihoi Beggarticks) · B. cernua (Bur Marigold) · B. cernua var. Cernua (Bur Marigold) · B. cervicata (Kauai Beggarticks) · B. conjuncta (Bog Beggarticks) · B. connata (Purple-Stem Beggarticks) · B. coronata (Crowned Beggarticks) · B. cosmoides (Cosmos-Flower Beggar-Ticks) · B. cuneata (Cuneate Bidens) · B. cynapiifolia (West Indian Beggar-Ticks) · B. discoidea (Discord Beggarticks) · B. eatoni (Eaton's Beggar-Ticks) · B. eatonii (Eaton's Beggar-Ticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Goldie' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Gold Marie' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Klebf07003' (Fern-Leaved Beggar-Ticks 'klebf07003') · B. ferulifolia 'Klebf07570' (Fern-Leaved Beggar-Ticks 'klebf07570') · B. ferulifolia 'Peter's Gold Carpet' (Bur Marigold) · B. ferulifolia 'Smiley' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Solaire Yellow' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. forbesii (Coastalbluff Beggarticks) · B. forbesii kahiliensis (Apache Beggar-Ticks) · B. forbesii subsp. kahiliensis (Kahili Beggarticks) · B. frondosa (Beggar Ticks) · B. gardneri (Ridge Beggartick) · B. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Beggarticks) · B. heterodoxa (Connecticut Beggar-Ticks) · B. heterodoxa var. heterodoxa (Connecticut Beggarticks) · B. heterosperma (Rocky Mountain Beggarticks) · B. hillebrandiana polycephala (Hillebrand's Beggar-Ticks) · B. hillebrandiana subsp. polycephala (Seacliff Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea (Estuary Beggar-Ticks) · B. hyperborea Greene var. gaspensis Fern. (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea Greene var. hyperborea Greene (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea Greene var. svensonii Fassett (Svenson's Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. arcuans (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. gaspensis (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. hyperborea (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. svensonii (Svenson's Beggarticks) · B. laevis (Burmarigold) · B. lemmonii (Lemmon's Beggar-Ticks) · B. leptocephala (Few-Flower Beggar-Ticks) · B. macrocarpa (Large-Fruit Beggar-Ticks) · B. mauiensis (Maui Beggarticks) · B. menziesii filiformis (Mauna Loa Beggarticks) · B. menziesii subsp. filiformis (Mauna Loa Beggarticks) · B. micrantha ctenophylla (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha kalealaha (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha micrantha (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha subsp. kalealaha (Kalealaha Beggarticks) · B. mitis (Florida Marigold) · B. molokaiensis (Molokai Beggar-Ticks) · B. multiceps (Beggartick) · B. pilosa (Beggar's Tick) · B. pilosa var. radiata (Beggar's Tick) · B. polycephala (Seacliff Beggarticks) · B. populifolia (Oahu Beggarticks) · B. reptans (Manzanilla Trepador) · B. reptans var. reptans (Manzanilla Trepador) · B. reptans var. urbanii (Urban's Beggartick) · B. sandvicensis confusa (Hawaiian Islands Beggar-Ticks) · B. sandvicensis sandvicensis (Shrubland Beggarticks) · B. sandvicensis subsp. confusa (Shrubland Beggarticks) · B. sulphurea (Sulphur Cosmos) · B. tenuisecta (Slim-Lobe Beggar-Ticks) · B. torta (Cork-Screw Beggar-Ticks) · B. tripartita (Three-Lobe Beggar-Ticks) · B. valida (Robust Bidens) · B. vulgata (Big Devils Beggartick) · B. wiebkei (Wiebke's Beggarticks) · B. amplissima (Hong Kong Orchid Tree) · B. x multiceps (Beggartick) · B. amplissima (Ottawa Barberry)
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- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
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- The genus Bidens. .. by Earl Edward Sherff. 16 1937 Chicago, 1937. url p. 279, p. 311, p. 312, p. 313, p. 320, p. 321, p. 33, p. 345, p. 7, plate LXXIII.
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- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 56, p. 772.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 56.
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- Who's who among the wild flowers / compiled and illustrated by W. I. Beecroft; with an introd. by Frances Duncan. New York: Moffat, Yard, 1910. url p. 346.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657371
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-207
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13748473
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:185005-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35711
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST180Y0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HELA19
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24268
- John L. Strother, Ronald R. Weedon "Bidens". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 184, 185, 205, 206. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Bidens laevis". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 208, 215. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 305.030 meters (1,000.755 feet), Standard Deviation = 736.370 based on 300 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]