- A common and widespread fall-blooming species in fields , marsh edges , powerlines and along roadsides.
Common Names in English:
Bearded Beggarticks, Bearded Beggerticks, Beggarticks, Bur Marigold, Long-Bracted Beggar-Ticks, Ozark Tickseed Sunflower, Swamp Beggarticks, Tickseed Beggar-Ticks, Tickseed Sunflower, Tickseed-Sunflower
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Heliantheae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that can be readily recognized due to the association of a receptacular bract or chaff scale with each disk floret in the head . The heads usually include bisexual , actinomorphic disk florets with tubular corollas that have 4 or 5 distal lobes and also peripheral zygomorphic female or sometimes sterile florets with strap-shaped corollas that have 3 or fewer distal teeth. However, the ray flowers are sometimes absent and the heads are then discoid , containing only bisexual florets with tubular corollas. The pappus is absent or more commonly ranges from scales to stiff bristles . -- Gerald Carr.
or perennials [shrubs
], 5400 cm. Stems usually 1, usually erect
or 4-angled, often striate
) branched distally or ± throughout. Leaves usually cauline; usually opposite, rarely whorled
, distal sometimes alternate; petiolate
or sessile; blades
), or 13+-pinnatisect or -pinnately lobed
(submerged leaves multifid
. beckii, an aquatic
, serrate, or toothed
, sometimes hirtellous, hispidulous
, pilosulous, puberulent
, scabrellous, or strigillose
. Heads usually radiate
, sometimes ± disciform
, usually in corymbiform
arrays, sometimes in 2s or 3s or borne singly. Calyculi of (3) 513(21+) erect to spreading
, ± herbaceous (sometimes foliaceous
or bracts (sometimes surpassing
phyllaries). Involucres mostly hemispheric
, (1) 412(25+) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, mostly (4) 821(30+) in ± 2 series, usually distinct
, sometimes connate
0.050.1 their lengths
, mostly oblong
to lance-oblong, chartaceous
to membranous or scarious
(usually striate with brownish nerves
, margins usually hyaline
). Receptacles flat or slightly convex
, paleate; paleae usually falling, (usually stramineous
, sometimes yellow to orange, with darker striae) ± flat to slightly navicular
. Ray florets usually 121+ (often 3, 5, 8, or 13), sometimes 0, usually neuter
, sometimes styliferous and sterile
; corollas usually yellow, sometimes white or pinkish. Disc florets (5) 1260(150+), bisexual
; corollas usually yellow to orange, sometimes whitish [purplish], tubes
shorter than throats
(3) 5, ± deltate (staminal
glabrous; style-branch appendages
deltate or lanceolate to subulate
). Cypselae usually obcompressed
to flat, unequally 34-angled, and cuneate to oblanceolate
, sometimes (all or inner) ± equally 4-angled and linear-fusiform, rarely subterete, margins (± corky-winged in B. aristosa, B. cernua, and B. polylepis) usually retrorsely, sometimes patently or antrorsely, barbed
, apices sometimes attenuate, not beaked
[beaked], faces smooth
, striate, or ± tuberculate
, glabrous or hairy
, each sometimes with 2 grooves
; pappi 0, or persistent, of (1) 24(8) usually retrorsely, sometimes antrorsely, barbellate
or ciliate, rarely smooth, awns
. x = 13.
Species 150-250+: widespread, especially in subtropical , tropical , and warm-temperate North America and South America.
Within species of Bidens, leaves may be simple, 1-pinnately compound, or 1-3-pinnatisect or -pinnately or -ternately lobed. For compound leaves, leaflets are described; for leaves mostly 1-pinnately lobed, primary lobes are described; for leaves 2-3-pinnatisect or -pinnately lobed, the ultimate lobes are described. Involucres in Bidens species are subtended by more or less herbaceous (sometimes foliaceous) bractlets or bracts; collectively, they constitute calyculi and they often well surpass the phyllaries. Together, phyllaries constitute involucres. In keys and descriptions here, shapes , heights , and diameters given for involucres are for involucres at flowering; involucres are sometimes notably larger in fruit. In some Bidens species, the outer and inner cypselae are obcompressed (unequally 3-4-angled) to flat, are mostly cuneate to obovate or nearly linear (broadest at or near apices), and are more or less similar except for sizes (outer smaller) ; in other species, the outer cypselae are obcompressed to flat and obovate to cuneate or linear and the inner are more or less equally 4-angled (in cross section ) and linear-fusiform (thickest near their middles and more or less attenuate toward their tips ).
Species Bidens aristosa
Annuals , (15-) 30-60(-150) cm. Leaves: petioles 10-30 mm; blades lanceolate to lance-linear overall, 30-80(-150) × 10-30(-50) mm, usually laciniately pinnatisect , primary lobes 3-7+, 15-60+ × 2-20 mm, bases cuneate, ultimate margins laciniate to serrate, ciliate , apices acuminate, faces glabrous or sparsely scabrellous. Heads in ± corymbiform arrays. Peduncles (10-) 30-80+ mm. Calyculi of 8-12(-16) usually spreading to reflexed , linear , seldom foliaceous bractlets (4-) 5-7(-12) mm, margins entire, ciliate, abaxial faces glabrous or ± scabrellous. Involucres ± hemispheric or broader, 6-8(-12) × 10-15 mm. Phyllaries 7-8(-13), lance-ovate to lance-linear, 6-8(-12) mm. Ray florets (5-) 8-10+; laminae yellow, 10-25 mm. Disc florets (12-) 20-40+; corollas yellowish, 2-3+ mm. Cypselae red-brown to blackish, ± flattened (unequally 3-4-angled), broadly cuneate, outer (4-) 5-6 mm, inner 5-7 mm (lengths mostly 1.5-2.5 times widths ), margins (± corky-winged) patently to antrorsely barbed , apices truncate to concave , faces weakly striate , sometimes tuberculate , glabrous or sparsely strigillose ; pappi 0, or of 2(-4) spreading to divergent, antrorsely or retrorsely barbed awns (0.5-) 2-4(-6) mm. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 36-48" tall.
Marshes, meadows, pine forests , disturbed sites; 0-300 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,761 meters (0 to 9,058 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
B. aristosa var. mutica (A. Gray) Gattinger Ex Fernald • Bidens aristosa var. fritcheyi Fernald • Bidens aristosa var. mutica (Gray) Gattinger • Bidens aristosa var. retrorsa (Sherff) Wunderlin • Bidens involucrata (Nutt.) Britt. • Bidens polylepis Blake • Bidens polylepis var. retrorsa Sherff • Coreopsis aristosa Michaux
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: New Zealand Plant Name Database, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, Euro+Med. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:DD521FAC-B20A-4B11-ADD7-82A437C46230
Last scrutiny: 15-Oct-09
Members of the genus Bidens
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 90 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. alba (Romerillo) · B. alba var. radiata (Bidens) · B. alba var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) Ballard ex T.E.Melchert (Bidens) · B. amplectens (Koko'olau) · B. amplissima (Vancouver Island Beggar-Ticks) · B. aristosa (Bearded Beggarticks) · B. asymmetrica (Asymmetrical Beggar-Ticks) · B. aurea (Arizona Beggar-Ticks) · B. bidentoides (Delmarva Beggarticks) · B. bigelovii (Bigelow Beggarticks) · B. bipinnata (Spanish Needles) · B. campylotheca (Campylotheca Bidens) · B. campylotheca campylotheca (Koko`olau) · B. campylotheca pentamera (Viper Beggarticks) · B. campylotheca waihoiensis (Koko`olau) · B. campylotheca subsp. pentamera (Viper Beggarticks) · B. campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (Waihoi Beggarticks) · B. cernua (Bur Marigold) · B. cernua var. Cernua (Bur Marigold) · B. cervicata (Kauai Beggarticks) · B. conjuncta (Bog Beggarticks) · B. connata (Purple-Stem Beggarticks) · B. coronata (Crowned Beggarticks) · B. cosmoides (Cosmos-Flower Beggar-Ticks) · B. cuneata (Cuneate Bidens) · B. cynapiifolia (West Indian Beggar-Ticks) · B. discoidea (Discord Beggarticks) · B. eatoni (Eaton's Beggar-Ticks) · B. eatonii (Eaton's Beggar-Ticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Goldie' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Gold Marie' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Klebf07003' (Fern-Leaved Beggar-Ticks 'klebf07003') · B. ferulifolia 'Klebf07570' (Fern-Leaved Beggar-Ticks 'klebf07570') · B. ferulifolia 'Peter's Gold Carpet' (Bur Marigold) · B. ferulifolia 'Smiley' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. ferulifolia 'Solaire Yellow' (Apache Beggarticks) · B. forbesii (Coastalbluff Beggarticks) · B. forbesii kahiliensis (Apache Beggar-Ticks) · B. forbesii subsp. kahiliensis (Kahili Beggarticks) · B. frondosa (Beggar Ticks) · B. gardneri (Ridge Beggartick) · B. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Beggarticks) · B. heterodoxa (Connecticut Beggar-Ticks) · B. heterodoxa var. heterodoxa (Connecticut Beggarticks) · B. heterosperma (Rocky Mountain Beggarticks) · B. hillebrandiana polycephala (Hillebrand's Beggar-Ticks) · B. hillebrandiana subsp. polycephala (Seacliff Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea (Estuary Beggar-Ticks) · B. hyperborea Greene var. gaspensis Fern. (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea Greene var. hyperborea Greene (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea Greene var. svensonii Fassett (Svenson's Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. arcuans (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. gaspensis (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. hyperborea (Estuary Beggarticks) · B. hyperborea var. svensonii (Svenson's Beggarticks) · B. laevis (Burmarigold) · B. lemmonii (Lemmon's Beggar-Ticks) · B. leptocephala (Few-Flower Beggar-Ticks) · B. macrocarpa (Large-Fruit Beggar-Ticks) · B. mauiensis (Maui Beggarticks) · B. menziesii filiformis (Mauna Loa Beggarticks) · B. menziesii subsp. filiformis (Mauna Loa Beggarticks) · B. micrantha ctenophylla (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha kalealaha (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha micrantha (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (Grassland Beggarticks) · B. micrantha subsp. kalealaha (Kalealaha Beggarticks) · B. mitis (Florida Marigold) · B. molokaiensis (Molokai Beggar-Ticks) · B. multiceps (Beggartick) · B. pilosa (Beggar's Tick) · B. pilosa var. radiata (Beggar's Tick) · B. polycephala (Seacliff Beggarticks) · B. populifolia (Oahu Beggarticks) · B. reptans (Manzanilla Trepador) · B. reptans var. reptans (Manzanilla Trepador) · B. reptans var. urbanii (Urban's Beggartick) · B. sandvicensis confusa (Hawaiian Islands Beggar-Ticks) · B. sandvicensis sandvicensis (Shrubland Beggarticks) · B. sandvicensis subsp. confusa (Shrubland Beggarticks) · B. sulphurea (Sulphur Cosmos) · B. tenuisecta (Slim-Lobe Beggar-Ticks) · B. torta (Cork-Screw Beggar-Ticks) · B. tripartita (Three-Lobe Beggar-Ticks) · B. valida (Robust Bidens) · B. vulgata (Big Devils Beggartick) · B. wiebkei (Wiebke's Beggarticks) · B. amplissima (Hong Kong Orchid Tree) · B. x multiceps (Beggartick) · B. amplissima (Ottawa Barberry)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A botanical survey of the Sugar Grove region / by Robert F. Griggs. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 336.
- A manual of weeds, with descriptions of all the most pernicious and troublesome plants in the United States and Canada, their habits of growth and distribution, with methods of control, by Ada E. Georgia. .. with 385 illustrations by F. Schuyler Mathews. .. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916, c1914. url p. 478, p. 479, p. 572.
- A manual of weeds: with descriptions of all the most pernicious and troublesome plants in the United States and Canada, their habits of growth and distribution, with methods of control / New York: Macmillan, 1919, c1914. url , .
- Additions to the flora of Connecticut / E.B. Harger. .. [et al.]. Boston?: New England Botanical Club, 1917? url p. 251.
- American bee journal. Hamilton, Ill., etc., Dadant & Sons url p. 104, p. 94, p. 95.
- American honey plants; together with those which are of special value to the beekeeper as sources of pollen. Hamilton, Ill., American Bee Journal, 1920. url p. 238.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 494, p. 495, p. 499.
- Annual report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904. url p. 133.
- Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan. .. Lansing: The Board, 1862- url p. 408.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 1591, p. 1663, p. 1667.
- Autumn notes in Iowa, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, The Torch press, 1914. url p. 177.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 62 2004 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 123, p. 15.
- Beekeeping; a discussion of the life of the honeybee and of the production of honey, by Everett Franklin Phillips. London, Macmillan & Co., 1918. url p. 391.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 238, p. 247.
- Bulletin / Illinois Natural History Survey. Urbana, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1918-1985. url p. 293, p. 581.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 228, p. 336.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 20 1893 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 281, p. 30, p. 35, p. 401, p. 497.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 228.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url , , p. 1751, p. 1779, p. 1781, p. 1853, p. 1857, p. 1859, p. 1867, p. 1869, p. 1936, p. 2133, p. 2134, p. 2139, p. 2144.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 397, p. 435.
- Compositae newsletter. Columbus, Ohio: Dept. of Botany, Ohio State University, 1975- url p. 20.
- Contributions from the Hull Botanical Laboratory. [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1895- url p. 307.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 21 1919 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 288, p. 289.
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 319, p. 319.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 12, p. 22, p. 28, p. 53.
- Fieldbook of Illinois wild flowers; six hundred fifty of the more common flowering plants in the state. Urbana, 1936. url p. 372, p. 372, p. 394, p. 394.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 982, p. 984.
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb.[c1912] url , .
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the ferns, conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb., 1923 url p. 188, p. 189.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 288, p. 289.
- Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District, by Donald Culross Peattie. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 389.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 1281.
- Flowers and insects; lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty-three flowers, by Charles Robertson. Carlinville, Ill., n.p.1928. url p. 58.
- Genus Labordia. Hawaiian Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae and Compositae. By Earl Edward Sherff. 17 1939 [Chicago]1939. url p. 607.
- Gray's new manual of botany (7th ed.--illustrated) A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, Cincinnati [etc.]American book company[c1908] url p. 839.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 171, p. 176.
- Illinois wild flowers, by John Voss and Virginia S. Eifert. Springfield,  url p. 224, p. 247.
- Iowa parks. Conservation of Iowa historic, scenic and scientific areas. Also, a description of numerous areas suitable for public state parks, with reasons for their preservation. Report of the State board of con Pub. by the state of Iowa. Des Moines url p. 167.
- Iowa parks. Des Moines url p. 167.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 336.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 1000, p. 1003.
- Manual of the flowering plants of Iowa. [Lamoni, Iowa]Privately published, 1899. url .
- Michigan flora: a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation / prepared by W.J. Beal. [Lansing, Mich.]: State Board of Agriculture: 1904. url , p. 133.
- Natural area inventory of Pender County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url p. 57.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 350.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 129, p. 251, p. 421, p. 68.
- Plant names, scientific and popular, including in the case of each plant the correct botanical name in accordance with the reformed nomenclature, together with botanical and popular synonyms. .. Comp. from the most authentic sources by A. B. Lyons. Detroit, Nelson, Baker & Co., 1900. url p. 63.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 288.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 115, p. 134, p. 137.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 147, p. 899.
- Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, Ind.[s.n.] url p. 141.
- Psyche. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge Entomological Club url p. 168, p. 169, p. 170, p. 171.
- Publications of Field Museum of Natural History. Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, [1936?] url p. 478.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- Revision of the genus Coreopsis, by Earl Edward Sherff. 11 1936 Chicago, 1936. url p. 451.
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 1280.
- Sources of the Ohio flora, by A.D. Selby and J.W.T. Duvel. Columbus, 1899 url p. 51.
- Studies in natural history. Iowa City, Ia. url p. 7.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 319, p. 62, p. 94.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 37 1956 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 1109, p. 393, p. 408, p. 790, p. 790, p. 846, p. 846, p. 942, p. 949.
- The flower and the bee; plant life and pollination, LondonConstable1919 url p. 116, p. 121, p. 234, p. 279.
- The genus Bidens. .. by Earl Edward Sherff. 16 1937 Chicago, 1937. url p. 205, p. 212, p. 214, p. 216, p. 217, p. 218, p. 219, p. 22, p. 220, p. 263, p. 27, p. 49, p. 544, p. 6, p. 630, plate LVIII.
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 124.
- The weed flora of Iowa / [by L. H. Pammel; with the collaboration of Charlotte M. King. .. et al.] Des Moines: Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 353, p. 490, p. 790.
- The weed flora of Iowa Des Moines, Iowa geological survey, 1913. url , , , .
- The weed flora of Iowa. .. Des Moines, Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 352, p. 490, p. 790.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 273, p. 80.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 144, p. 166, p. 173, p. 33.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 23.
- Hall, G. W. 1967. A Biosystematic Study of the North American Complex of the Genus Bidens (Compositae). Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University.
- Sherff, E. E. 1937. The genus Bidens. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 16.
- Weedon, R. R. 1973. Taxonomy and Distribution of the Genus Bidens (Compositae) in the North-central Plains States. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Kansas.
- "Bidens aristosa". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 185, 206, 207, 214. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- GCC: Global Compositae Checklist. Release date: November 18, 2009
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 24, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 3 providers.
- Light, Kris. East Tennessee Wildflowers
- Pippen, Jeffrey S. Jeff's Nature Page. Accessed December 9, 2007.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 26, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657373
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-4186
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:184738-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 416228
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35713
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST18030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BIIN2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24675
- John L. Strother, Ronald R. Weedon "Bidens". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 184, 185, 205, 206. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Bidens aristosa". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 185, 206, 207, 214. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 217.450 meters (713.419 feet), Standard Deviation = 166.080 based on 861 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]