Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Bruisewort, Common Daisy, Daisy, English Daisy, English Lawn Daisy, European Daisy, Lawn Daisy, Lawndaisy
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Pâquerette, Pâquerette Commune
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Bellide, Margherite, Pratolina
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
], 5-20 cm (scapiform
; rhizomes herbaceous [roots
]). Stems erect
. Leaves basal (mostly) [sometimes cauline, reduced]; alternate; petiolate
1-nerved, obovate-spatulate to rounded
crenate-serrate, strigose. Heads radiate
, borne singly. Involucres hemispheric
, [3-]4-6[-8] Ã— 9-13 mm.
Phyllaries 13-14+ in (1-) 2(-3) series 1-nerved, oblong
, herbaceous, margins entire, abaxial
strigose. Receptacles conic [hemispheric or nearly flat] (± elongating with age), pitted
, epaleate. Ray florets 35-90 (in [1-]3-4 series), pistillate
; corollas abaxially often pink- or purplish-tinged, adaxially white (closing at night). Disc florets 60-80+, bisexual
, fertile; corollas pale
much shorter than funnelform
5, erect or incurved
, deltate; style-branch appendages
deltate. Cypselae obconic, compressed
, marginally 2-ribbed, eglandular
[gland-dotted (sessile) ], faces short-strigose [glabrous
or ciliate-margined]; pappi 0 [bristles
]. x = 9.
Species 15: introduced , North America; Mediterranean basin , Europe, n Africa, Macaronesia; introduced also to temperate areas worldwide.
O. Fiz et al. (2002) showed that Bellis is closely related to Bellium Linnaeus and Bellidiastrum michelii Cassini (syn. Aster bellidiastrum Scopoli). Subtribe Bellidinae (Cassini ex D. Don) Bentham should be expanded to include the latter in a group of scapiform perennials or annuals. Fiz et al. showed also that Crinitaria and Galatella (two segregates of Aster in the broad sense complex ) are sister to Bellidinae. Exact relationships of this group to other subtribes of Astereae are still undetermined.
Species Bellis perennis
Rhizomes short, erect , herbaceous. Leaves: petioles winged , equaling or longer than blades ; blades 6-40 × 4-20 mm, bases ± attenuate, apices rounded . Peduncles lax , (3-) 5-15(-20) cm. Phyllaries: margins ciliolate , particularly distally, apices obtuse. Ray corollas 4-8(-11) mm. Disc corollas 1.5 mm. Cypselae 1-2 mm. 2n = 18. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: near white, pink, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Lawns and moist, waste places, roadsides; 0-500+ m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,212 meters (0 to 13,819 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Bellis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. perennis (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Deep Rose' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Habanera Mix' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Habanera White With Red Tips' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Monstrosa Mixed' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Pomponette Pink' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Pomponette Red' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Robella' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Rob Roy' (English Daisy) · B. perennis 'Super Enorma' (Bruisewort) · B. perennis 'Tasso White' (Bruisewort)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658155
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-23659
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5304283
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:184409-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 6728
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 36826
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST14010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BEPE2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24655
- Luc Brouillet "Bellis". in Flora of North America Vol. 20 Page 16,20, 22, 23. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Bellis perennis". in Flora of North America Vol. 20 Page 21,23. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 177.590 meters (582.644 feet), Standard Deviation = 209.780 based on 8,908 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]