, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
or semiterrestrial, with stems and leaves often submersed
. Leaves alternate, subsessile
to long petiolate
, leaf blade
usually submersed, 2--5 × dissected
or narrowly linear
, sometimes floating and then blade 3-lobed, not finely dissected. Inflorescence a solitary, leaf-opposed flower. Flowers bisexual
. Receptacle conical
. Sepals (4 or) 5, caducous
. Petals (4 or) 5, usually white, with yellow base
, rarely entirely yellow, obovate
, base shortly clawed, with a nectary
pit above claw
, apex rounded
. Stamens few or numerous
. Carpels numerous; ovule 1 per carpel. Style with adaxial
surface. Aggregate fruit ovoid
; achenes obovoid
, slightly bilaterally compressed
, transversely rugose
About 20 species: S Africa, Asia, SE Australia, Europe, North and South America; eight species (one endemic) in China.
The separation of Batrachium from Ranunculus is not clear-cut and many botanists prefer to include the former genus within the latter. All species are aquatic or grow on wet mud .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Batrachium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 116, p. 116.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation, Hartford, Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url .
- Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District, by Donald Culross Peattie. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 186.
- Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia, by P.A. Rydberg. .. New York, The author, 1922. url p. 293.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 440, p. 440.
- New manual of botany of the central Rocky mountains (vascular plants) by John M. Coulter, rev. by Aven Nelson. Cincinnati [etc.]American book company[c1909] url p. 198, p. 199.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 251.
- Rydberg, P. A. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, and British Columbia /by P. A. Rydberg... 1917 New York: The author, 1917. url p. 293.
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 440.
- Spring flora of the Wasatch region / by A.O. Garrett. Salt Lake City: Skelton Publishing, 1911. url p. 26.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 68 1954 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 80.
- Wild flowers of New York, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1918. url p. 109, p. 109.
- Wild flowers; New York, Macmillan Co., 1934. url .
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Wang Wencai, Michio Tamura "Batrachium". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 431. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]