, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
or semiterrestrial, with stems and leaves often submersed
. Leaves alternate, subsessile
to long petiolate
, leaf blade
usually submersed, 2--5 × dissected
or narrowly linear
, sometimes floating and then blade 3-lobed, not finely dissected. Inflorescence a solitary, leaf-opposed flower. Flowers bisexual
. Receptacle conical
. Sepals (4 or) 5, caducous
. Petals (4 or) 5, usually white, with yellow base
, rarely entirely yellow, obovate
, base shortly clawed, with a nectary
pit above claw
, apex rounded
. Stamens few or numerous
. Carpels numerous; ovule 1 per carpel. Style with adaxial
surface. Aggregate fruit ovoid
; achenes obovoid
, slightly bilaterally compressed
, transversely rugose
About 20 species: S Africa, Asia, SE Australia, Europe, North and South America; eight species (one endemic) in China.
The separation of Batrachium from Ranunculus is not clear-cut and many botanists prefer to include the former genus within the latter. All species are aquatic or grow on wet mud .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Batrachium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A catalogue of the phaenogamous plants of Great Britain: arranged according to the natural orders: with a copious list of synonyms carefully compiled from Steudel's Nomenclator botanicus, Smith's English flora, Hookers's British flora, Lindley's Synopsis, by Henry Ibbotson. London: H. Bailliere, 1848. url p. 2.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 115, p. 116, p. 116.
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- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 15.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url .
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- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 161.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 429.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 161.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url , p. 157, p. 157, p. 201, p. 201, p. 205, p. 97.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 436, p. 509.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2906, p. 3614.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Wang Wencai, Michio Tamura "Batrachium". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 431. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]