, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
or semiterrestrial, with stems and leaves often submersed
. Leaves alternate, subsessile
to long petiolate
, leaf blade
usually submersed, 2--5 × dissected
or narrowly linear
, sometimes floating and then blade 3-lobed, not finely dissected. Inflorescence a solitary, leaf-opposed flower. Flowers bisexual
. Receptacle conical
. Sepals (4 or) 5, caducous
. Petals (4 or) 5, usually white, with yellow base
, rarely entirely yellow, obovate
, base shortly clawed, with a nectary
pit above claw
, apex rounded
. Stamens few or numerous
. Carpels numerous; ovule 1 per carpel. Style with adaxial
surface. Aggregate fruit ovoid
; achenes obovoid
, slightly bilaterally compressed
, transversely rugose
About 20 species: S Africa, Asia, SE Australia, Europe, North and South America; eight species (one endemic) in China.
The separation of Batrachium from Ranunculus is not clear-cut and many botanists prefer to include the former genus within the latter. All species are aquatic or grow on wet mud .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Wimm. Publication : Fl. Schles. (1841) 10
Members of the genus Batrachium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3479052
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15808287
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:709137-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1386348
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Wang Wencai, Michio Tamura "Batrachium". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 431. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]