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Common Names in English:
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
Plants usually turf-forming or loosely cespitose, green distally and brown proximally. Stems 0.2-4(-10) cm, irregularly branching, mostly rounded-pentagonal but occasionally rounded-triangular in section
, hyalodermis usually absent, sclerodermis sometimes present, central strand usually present, radiculose
, occasionally bare or tomentose
, axillary hairs
, sometimes the proximal
1-3 cells brownish. Stem leaves usually appressed
and often contorted when dry, spreading
when wet, ovoid
to lanceolate or lingulate
, often channeled
, rarely concave
, mostly ca.
1.5-3.5 mm; base
, occasionally sheathing
the stem; margins
usually recurved proximally, occasionally plane
, or involute
, entire or sometimes dentate
distally, occasionally bordered
by thick-walled or elongate
cells or cells in one or more layers; apex rounded-obtuse to more commonly narrowly acute; costa ending a few cells before the apex to short-excurrent or long-excurrent as an awn
, sometimes with photosynthetic outgrowths adaxially, adaxial
or elongate in usually 2-4 rows
, costa in medial
section usually with a differentiated epidermis
adaxially or on both sides, 1 or 2 stereid
, the abaxial
stereid band usually rounded
, guide cells in 1(-3) layers, hydroid
occasionally present (sometimes multiple
) ; basal laminal
cells usually differentiated, smooth
or lightly papillose
, rectangular, generally filling the base medially, sometimes rising marginally in a V shape
, occasionally bulging, usually slightly wider than the distal laminal cells; distal laminal cells usually subquadrate
, occasionally hexagonal or rarely short-rectangular or rhomboid
, mostly small, ca. 9-16 mm wide, 1:1, papillae usually present over the distal laminal cells, solid or occasionally hollow, usually 2-fid but occasionally simple
, sometimes flattened or compound
, cell walls
mostly evenly thickened, superficially flat to bulging, sometimes bulging only adaxially, usually in one layer. Specialized asexual
reproduction common, by multicellular
(rarely 1-cellular) gemmae borne on stalks
in the leaf axils
or more seldom on leaves, or by obovoid
brood bodies borne on rhizoids in the soil, rarely by reduced or fragile leaves or fragile stems. Sexual condition dioicous or monoicous, occasionally rhizautoicous
; perigonia and perichaetia terminal
or occasionally lateral
on short branchlets
. Perigoniate plants occasionally smaller than the perichaetiate, seldom nearly stemless and budlike. Perichaetial leaves often sheathing in the basal portion and then with elongate-rhomboid cells basally, usually larger than the cauline leaves, long-oval to long-lanceolate. Sporophytes often in transformation
series of peristome reduction and seta shortening. Seta usually solitary, elongate, often twisted. Capsule stegocarpous
ovoid to cylindric
, neck usually small or nearly absent; annulus little differentiated or of 1-2 rows of vesiculose
cells, occasionally revoluble
or deciduous in pieces
; operculum short-conic to short-rostrate, cells in straight or oblique
rows; peristome teeth occasionally absent, more usually erect
or twisted usually dextrose (counter clockwise
), yellow, orange, or red, rudimentary
or consisting of 16 mostly twice cleft
, spiculose, striate
, or papillose, lanceolate teeth, or 32 linear
, usually densely spiculose filiform divisions, the basal membrane
usually low or absent, occasionally very high and trabeculate
. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, occasionally mitrate, rarely papillose. Spores usually ca. 10-15 µm, occasionally much larger. Laminal KOH color reaction yellow to orange-red or red in 2% KOH solution.
Genera ca. 77, species ca. 1450 (40 genera, 165 species in the flora ) : worldwide, characteristic of harsh habitats .
This is the largest family of the mosses in number of genera. Its taxonomy is commonly considered difficult because of the obscure areolation , small size of the plants , and apparent phenotypic variation . A recent generic-level revision by R. H. Zander (1993) pulled together the scattered literature and de-emphasized sporophytic characters, allowing easier identification of sterile plants. The phylogenetic scheme adopted here approximates that of Zander (1993) as modified by Zander (2006) except that Gymnostomiella and Luisierella are moved from the Barbuloideae to the Pottioideae, in part for convenience in identification. The large number of anatomical characters available permits better identification of previously poorly understood taxa. The color tests refer to the reaction of the cell walls of the distal laminal areolation to 2% potassium hydroxide solution, which may require examination under the compound microscope for determination. Sectioning of leaf and stem is necessary and is described by Zander (1993) . A twisted peristome, strongly differentiated costal anatomy , and the complexly papillose distal laminal cells are characteristic of this mostly acrocarpous family, commonly found in harsh environments.
Plants loosely cespitose or forming cushions
, yellowish brown, brown or blackish distally, yellowish brown to reddish brown proximally. Stems short to elongate
, to 2(-3.5) cm; hyalodermis rarely present, sclerodermis present, central strand present; axillary hairs
short to elongate, all cells
almost always hyaline
. Leaves appressed
to weakly spreading
, often contorted or twisted about stem, occasionally catenulate
when dry, spreading when moist; ligulate
or broadly lanceolate to long-triangular, adaxial
surface usually deeply grooved
along costa, occasionally broadly concave
weakly differentiated to broadened and somewhat sheathing
sometimes narrowly decurrent; margins usually recurved in proximal 1/2-2/3, occasionally plane
throughout, entire or occasionally weakly denticulate
near apex; lamina 1-stratose; apex rounded
to obtusely acute, usually mucronate
, occasionally entire or apiculate
; costa percurrent
to shortly excurrent as a sharp mucro
, occasionally ending a few cells before the apex, adaxial outgrowths absent, adaxial cells elongate, occasionally quadrate
to short-rectangular, in 2-3(-5) rows
to semicircular, adaxial epidermis differentiated, adaxial stereid band
usually present, usually small, guide cells 2-4 in 1 layer, hydroid
occasionally present, abaxial
band present, usually strong
, semi-lunar in sectional shape
, abaxial epidermis usually present but weakly differentiated; basal cells
differentiated across leaf or reaching higher medially or occasionally marginally, rectangular, usually little wider than the distal cells, 3-5:1, walls of proximal cells thin to evenly thickened; distal medial cells quadrate, usually 1:1, 1-stratose; papillae hollow or solid, multiplex to 2-fid, 2-3 per lumen
, occasionally simple
or absent, cell walls
thin to evenly thickened, superficially bulging on both free
sides. Specialized asexual
reproduction by tubers borne on proximal rhizoids or gemmae borne on axillary
. Sexual condition dioicous or possibly sometimes rhizautoicous
. Perichaetia terminal
, interior leaves sometimes strongly sheathing, little differentiated or ovate to long-lanceolate, laminal
cells usually rhomboid
in proximal 1/2-3/4. Seta 0.5-2.5 cm. Capsule stegocarpous
ovate to long-cylindric, annulus weakly differentiated to strong, of 1-3 rows of vesiculose
cells, sometimes revoluble
or deciduous in pieces
; operculum usually long-conic; peristome teeth of 32 narrow rami, filamentous
to narrowly triangular, usually strongly twisted counterclockwise
. Calyptra cucullate
. Spores mostly 8-12 µm. KOH laminal color reaction yellow, occasionally yellowish orange.
Species ca. 200: worldwide in temperate zones.
Barbula has been much reduced in size. K . Saito (1975) presented cogent reasons for recognizing Didymodon as distinct . Characters of importance in distinguishing Barbula are: axillary hairs almost always entirely of hyaline cells; leaf adaxially usually deeply grooved along the costa; distal laminal cell papillae rough, knobby, obscuring the lumens, and protuberant along the distal laminal margins; costa usually excurrent as a sharp mucro or an apiculus of one or more clear cells; peristome is long and twisted, and as Saito (1975) pointed out, Barbula has gemmae generally larger than those of Didymodon. The three sections are represented in the flora area: sect. Barbula, including B . unguiculata and B. orizabensis; sect. Convolutae Bruch & Schimper (Streblotrichum P. Beauvois), including B. amplexifolia, B. convoluta, and B. indica; and sect. Hydrogonium (Müller Hal.) K. Saito [Hydrogonium (Müller Hal.) K. Saito [Hydrogonium (Müller Hal.) A. Jaeger], including B. bolleana. For many taxa previously long-held in Barbula, see 16. Didymodon.
Species Barbula unguiculata
Stems 1-2 cm. Leaves firm when wet, long-ligulate to
broadly lanceolate from an oblong
, 1-2.5 mm, base often oblong
and widened, not strongly sheathing
recurved in the proximal
1/2-2/3, rarely to near apex or plane
, apex broadly acute to rounded
costa excurrent as a short or long mucro
, seldom muticous
costal surface with scattered
solid papillae, hydroids
, 8-12 µm wide, 1:1, papillose
reproduction absent. Perichaetial leaves
weakly differentiated. Seta 1-2.5 cm. Theca 1-2.5 mm.
Spores 8-11 µm. Capsules mature
in winter and early
, occasionally summer or fall
Barbula unguiculata is common in eastern North America and Europe, and elsewhere in the North and South Temperate zones, but rare in the tropics and the Arctic , with, for instance, only two known sites in Mexico and a single one north of the Arctic tree line . The leaves are often blackened. Forms with strongly mucronate leaf apices have been referred to var. apiculata though modern authorities generally treat this as a form. Barbula indica is often confused with this species, but differs immediately in the leaves conduplicate but not contorted when dry, with plane or weakly recurved margins, and prorate abaxial surface of the costa. Barbula convoluta is similar but has plane margins, costa not excurrent as a mucro and seta yellow rather than reddish brown. [source]
Soil, sand, gravel , sandstone, granite, limestone, walls, roadcuts, paths, lawns, ditches; low to high elevations (50-2700 m ).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subclass: Dicranidae ()
- Class: Bryopsida () - - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Barbula unguiculata var. apiculata (Hedwig) Bruch • Barbula unguiculata< /i> (C. Müller) Chen Pan-Chieh • Barbula unguiculata< /i> (Hedwig) Mönkemeyer • Barbula unguiculata< /i> (Schultz) Hübener • Barbula unquiculata Hedw. • Schimper & W. Gümbel
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Barbula
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. agraria (Barbula Moss) · B. amplexifolia (Barbula Moss) · B. convoluta (Convoluted Barbula Moss) · B. coreensis (Barbula Moss) · B. ehrenbergii (Ehrenberg's Barbula Moss) · B. eustegia (Barbula Moss) · B. indica (Barbula Moss) · B. indica var. indica (Barbula Moss) · B. unguiculata (Barbula Moss) · B. wollei (Bartramia Moss)
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- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 27, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 14 providers.
- MOST: Moss TROPICOS Database. Release date: July 19, 2004
- Moss TROPICOS: the World Checklist of Mosses
- Moss TROPICOS DatabaseJul 1, 2004.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Australian Antarctic Division Herbarium
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen: Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem: GEO Biodiversity Day
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain: Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid: MA-Musci
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad de Murcia, Dpto. Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Murcia: MUB-MUSCI
- GBIF-Sweden: Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN)
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (AMNH)
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (ICEL)
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales: NSW herbarium collection
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Bryophyte herbarium, Bergen (BG)
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Bryophyte herbarium, Oslo (O)
- The New York Botanical Garden: American Bryophyte Catalog
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain from the British Bryological Society held by BRC
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain held by BRC for compilation
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: MEXU/Colección de Briofitas
- University Museums of Norway (MUSIT)
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3872949
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35111566
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 1428686
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 547561
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BAUN7
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24902
- Richard H. Zander "Pottiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 5, 12, 13, 110, 163, 265, 286, 377, 381, 468, 476, 482, 491, 548, 562, 56. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Richard H. Zander "Barbula". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 15, 38, 479, 492, 525, 527, 528, 529, 540, 566, 577, 606, 610. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Barbula unguiculata". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 25, 485, 529, 530, 533. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 410.560 meters (1,346.982 feet), Standard Deviation = 709.330 based on 22,143 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]