Common Names in English:
Plants usually turf-forming or loosely cespitose, green distally and brown proximally. Stems 0.2-4(-10) cm, irregularly branching, mostly rounded-pentagonal but occasionally rounded-triangular in section
, hyalodermis usually absent, sclerodermis sometimes present, central strand usually present, radiculose
, occasionally bare or tomentose
, axillary hairs
, sometimes the proximal
1-3 cells brownish. Stem leaves usually appressed
and often contorted when dry, spreading
when wet, ovoid
to lanceolate or lingulate
, often channeled
, rarely concave
, mostly ca.
1.5-3.5 mm; base
, occasionally sheathing
the stem; margins
usually recurved proximally, occasionally plane
, or involute
, entire or sometimes dentate
distally, occasionally bordered
by thick-walled or elongate
cells or cells in one or more layers; apex rounded-obtuse to more commonly narrowly acute; costa ending a few cells before the apex to short-excurrent or long-excurrent as an awn
, sometimes with photosynthetic outgrowths adaxially, adaxial
or elongate in usually 2-4 rows
, costa in medial
section usually with a differentiated epidermis
adaxially or on both sides, 1 or 2 stereid
, the abaxial
stereid band usually rounded
, guide cells in 1(-3) layers, hydroid
occasionally present (sometimes multiple
) ; basal laminal
cells usually differentiated, smooth
or lightly papillose
, rectangular, generally filling the base medially, sometimes rising marginally in a V shape
, occasionally bulging, usually slightly wider than the distal laminal cells; distal laminal cells usually subquadrate
, occasionally hexagonal or rarely short-rectangular or rhomboid
, mostly small, ca. 9-16 mm wide, 1:1, papillae usually present over the distal laminal cells, solid or occasionally hollow, usually 2-fid but occasionally simple
, sometimes flattened or compound
, cell walls
mostly evenly thickened, superficially flat to bulging, sometimes bulging only adaxially, usually in one layer. Specialized asexual
reproduction common, by multicellular
(rarely 1-cellular) gemmae borne on stalks
in the leaf axils
or more seldom on leaves, or by obovoid
brood bodies borne on rhizoids in the soil, rarely by reduced or fragile leaves or fragile stems. Sexual condition dioicous or monoicous, occasionally rhizautoicous
; perigonia and perichaetia terminal
or occasionally lateral
on short branchlets
. Perigoniate plants occasionally smaller than the perichaetiate, seldom nearly stemless and budlike. Perichaetial leaves often sheathing in the basal portion and then with elongate-rhomboid cells basally, usually larger than the cauline leaves, long-oval to long-lanceolate. Sporophytes often in transformation
series of peristome reduction and seta shortening. Seta usually solitary, elongate, often twisted. Capsule stegocarpous
ovoid to cylindric
, neck usually small or nearly absent; annulus little differentiated or of 1-2 rows of vesiculose
cells, occasionally revoluble
or deciduous in pieces
; operculum short-conic to short-rostrate, cells in straight or oblique
rows; peristome teeth occasionally absent, more usually erect
or twisted usually dextrose (counter clockwise
), yellow, orange, or red, rudimentary
or consisting of 16 mostly twice cleft
, spiculose, striate
, or papillose, lanceolate teeth, or 32 linear
, usually densely spiculose filiform divisions, the basal membrane
usually low or absent, occasionally very high and trabeculate
. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, occasionally mitrate, rarely papillose. Spores usually ca. 10-15 µm, occasionally much larger. Laminal KOH color reaction yellow to orange-red or red in 2% KOH solution.
Genera ca. 77, species ca. 1450 (40 genera, 165 species in the flora ) : worldwide, characteristic of harsh habitats .
This is the largest family of the mosses in number of genera. Its taxonomy is commonly considered difficult because of the obscure areolation , small size of the plants , and apparent phenotypic variation . A recent generic-level revision by R. H. Zander (1993) pulled together the scattered literature and de-emphasized sporophytic characters, allowing easier identification of sterile plants. The phylogenetic scheme adopted here approximates that of Zander (1993) as modified by Zander (2006) except that Gymnostomiella and Luisierella are moved from the Barbuloideae to the Pottioideae, in part for convenience in identification. The large number of anatomical characters available permits better identification of previously poorly understood taxa. The color tests refer to the reaction of the cell walls of the distal laminal areolation to 2% potassium hydroxide solution, which may require examination under the compound microscope for determination. Sectioning of leaf and stem is necessary and is described by Zander (1993) . A twisted peristome, strongly differentiated costal anatomy , and the complexly papillose distal laminal cells are characteristic of this mostly acrocarpous family, commonly found in harsh environments.
Plants loosely cespitose or forming cushions
, yellowish brown, brown or blackish distally, yellowish brown to reddish brown proximally. Stems short to elongate
, to 2(-3.5) cm; hyalodermis rarely present, sclerodermis present, central strand present; axillary hairs
short to elongate, all cells
almost always hyaline
. Leaves appressed
to weakly spreading
, often contorted or twisted about stem, occasionally catenulate
when dry, spreading when moist; ligulate
or broadly lanceolate to long-triangular, adaxial
surface usually deeply grooved
along costa, occasionally broadly concave
weakly differentiated to broadened and somewhat sheathing
sometimes narrowly decurrent; margins usually recurved in proximal 1/2-2/3, occasionally plane
throughout, entire or occasionally weakly denticulate
near apex; lamina 1-stratose; apex rounded
to obtusely acute, usually mucronate
, occasionally entire or apiculate
; costa percurrent
to shortly excurrent as a sharp mucro
, occasionally ending a few cells before the apex, adaxial outgrowths absent, adaxial cells elongate, occasionally quadrate
to short-rectangular, in 2-3(-5) rows
to semicircular, adaxial epidermis differentiated, adaxial stereid band
usually present, usually small, guide cells 2-4 in 1 layer, hydroid
occasionally present, abaxial
band present, usually strong
, semi-lunar in sectional shape
, abaxial epidermis usually present but weakly differentiated; basal cells
differentiated across leaf or reaching higher medially or occasionally marginally, rectangular, usually little wider than the distal cells, 3-5:1, walls of proximal cells thin to evenly thickened; distal medial cells quadrate, usually 1:1, 1-stratose; papillae hollow or solid, multiplex to 2-fid, 2-3 per lumen
, occasionally simple
or absent, cell walls
thin to evenly thickened, superficially bulging on both free
sides. Specialized asexual
reproduction by tubers borne on proximal rhizoids or gemmae borne on axillary
. Sexual condition dioicous or possibly sometimes rhizautoicous
. Perichaetia terminal
, interior leaves sometimes strongly sheathing, little differentiated or ovate to long-lanceolate, laminal
cells usually rhomboid
in proximal 1/2-3/4. Seta 0.5-2.5 cm. Capsule stegocarpous
ovate to long-cylindric, annulus weakly differentiated to strong, of 1-3 rows of vesiculose
cells, sometimes revoluble
or deciduous in pieces
; operculum usually long-conic; peristome teeth of 32 narrow rami, filamentous
to narrowly triangular, usually strongly twisted counterclockwise
. Calyptra cucullate
. Spores mostly 8-12 µm. KOH laminal color reaction yellow, occasionally yellowish orange.
Species ca. 200: worldwide in temperate zones.
Barbula has been much reduced in size. K . Saito (1975) presented cogent reasons for recognizing Didymodon as distinct . Characters of importance in distinguishing Barbula are: axillary hairs almost always entirely of hyaline cells; leaf adaxially usually deeply grooved along the costa; distal laminal cell papillae rough, knobby, obscuring the lumens, and protuberant along the distal laminal margins; costa usually excurrent as a sharp mucro or an apiculus of one or more clear cells; peristome is long and twisted, and as Saito (1975) pointed out, Barbula has gemmae generally larger than those of Didymodon. The three sections are represented in the flora area: sect. Barbula, including B . unguiculata and B. orizabensis; sect. Convolutae Bruch & Schimper (Streblotrichum P. Beauvois), including B. amplexifolia, B. convoluta, and B. indica; and sect. Hydrogonium (Müller Hal.) K. Saito [Hydrogonium (Müller Hal.) K. Saito [Hydrogonium (Müller Hal.) A. Jaeger], including B. bolleana. For many taxa previously long-held in Barbula, see 16. Didymodon.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Class: Bryopsida () - - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Barbula
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
B. agraria (Barbula Moss) · B. amplexifolia (Barbula Moss) · B. convoluta (Convoluted Barbula Moss) · B. coreensis (Barbula Moss) · B. ehrenbergii (Ehrenberg's Barbula Moss) · B. eustegia (Barbula Moss) · B. indica (Barbula Moss) · B. indica var. indica (Barbula Moss) · B. unguiculata (Barbula Moss) · B. wollei (Bartramia Moss)
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- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 724.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 386, p. 40.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 40 1913 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 699.
- Contribution [I]-III to the coastal and plain flora of Yucatan, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh. 1 1895 Chicago, 1895-1898. url p. 7, p. vi.
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 659.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 103.
- European and N. American Bryineae (mosses). Linko?ping, Linko?pings Lithografiska Aktiebolag, 1897. url .
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 440, p. 564.
- Flora of Yucatan, by Paul C. Standley. 3 1930 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 192.
- Kindberg, N. C. Genera of European and Northamerican Bryineae (Mosses) /synoptically disposed by N. C. Kindberg. 1897 Linkoeping, Sweden: P. M. Sahlstroems Bookselling (C.V. Zickerman),  url p. 261.
- Manual of the mosses of North America by Leo Lesquereux and Thomas P. James. Boston: Bradlee Whidden, 1895, c1884. url .
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 103.
- Mosses of Guatemala / Edwin B. Bartram. 25 1949 [Chicago]Chicago National History Museum,  url figure 58 , figure 57 , p. 126, p. 128.
- Muscologia britannica containing the mosses of Great Britain and Ireland systematically arranged and described with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species / by William Jackson Hooker and Thomas Taylor. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1827. url p. 59.
- Muscologia britannica; containing the mosses of Great Britain & Ireland, systematically arranged and described; with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species. By William Jackson Hooker and Thomas Taylor. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1818. url p. 32.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 201, p. 202, p. 203, p. 210.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 445.
- Species of European and Northamerican [sic] Bryineae (mosses) synoptically described by N. Conr. Kindberg. Linköping [Sweden]: Linköpings Lithografiska Aktiebolag, 1896. url .
- The Bahama Islands / edited by George Burbank Shattuck. New York: Macmillan, 1905. url , p. 248, p. 248, p. 605.
- The Bahama Islands, London, The Macmillan company, 1905. url p. 248, p. 248, p. 604, p. 605.
- The Bahama flora, by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Charles Frederick Millspaugh. New York, The authors, 1920. url p. 484, p. 484.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1824-36. url p. 46.
- The Musci and Hepaticae of the United States east of the Mississippi River. Contributed to the second edition of Gray's Manual of botany, by William S. Sullivant. New York, G.P. Putnam, 1856. url p. 80.
- The flora of the American Virgin Islands / N.L. Britton. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1918. url p. 103.
- Werner, O., R. M. Ros, M. J. Cano, and J. Guerra. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Pottiaceae (Musci) based on chloroplast rps4 sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 243: 147-164.
- Zander, R. H. 1982. Aspects of the taxonomy of the Pottiaceae. Beih. Nov. Hedw. 71: 225-227.
- Zander, R. H. 1993. Genera of the Pottiaceae: Mosses of harsh environments. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 32.
- Zander, R. H. 2006. The Pottiaceae s.str. as an evolutionary Lazarus taxon. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 100: 581-602.
- Steere, W. C. 1939b. Barbula in North America north of Mexico. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 93-119.
- Zander, R. H. 1994i. Barbula. In: A. J. Sharp et al., eds. The moss flora of Mexico. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 69: 286-296.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 26, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2642983
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 16118039
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 16636
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TOAG
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24327
- Richard H. Zander "Pottiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 5, 12, 13, 110, 163, 265, 286, 377, 381, 468, 476, 482, 491, 548, 562, 56. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Richard H. Zander "Barbula". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 15, 38, 479, 492, 525, 527, 528, 529, 540, 566, 577, 606, 610. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]