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Barbarea orthoceras

(American Winter-Cress)

Overview

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Chinese:

山芥菜

Common Names in English:

American Winter-Cress, American wintercress, American yellow rocket, American Yellowrocket, erect fruit wintercress, Erectpod Wintercress, northern wintercress, straight horned wintercress, Wintercress

Common Names in French:

barbarée à fruits dressés

Common Names in Russian:

Сурепка пряморогая

Description

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Physical Description

Species Barbarea orthoceras

Herbs biennial or perennial , (10-) 20-60(-100) cm tall. Stems erect , angled , glabrous throughout. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate ; petiole (0.5-) 1-5(-7) cm, glabrous or rarely ciliate basally; leaf blade (1-) 1.5-4(-6) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid, with (1 or) 2-4(-6) lobes on each side of rachis, rarely unlobed, not fleshy ; lateral lobes oblong or ovate , 2-10 × 1-5 mm, entire; terminal lobe considerably larger than lateral ones, 1.5-5 × 1-2.5 cm. Cauline leaves usually lyrate-pinnatifid, with 1-4 lateral lobes, rarely coarsely toothed , sessile, conspicuously auriculate ; auricles ovate or narrowly oblong, to 8 × 5 mm, ciliate, entire; lateral lobes oblong or ovate, rarely lanceolate, to 2 × 1 cm, glabrous, entire; terminal lobe much larger than lateral ones, to 5 × 3 cm, entire, repand , or rarely dentate . Racemes ebracteate , elongated considerably in fruit. Sepals yellow, oblong, 2.5-3.5 × 1-1.5 mm, erect, margin scarious , lateral pair slightly saccate . Petals yellow or pale yellow, oblanceolate , rounded , (3-) 4-5(-6) × 1.5-2 mm, attenuate to base . Filaments yellow, 3-4.5 mm; anthers oblong, ca. 1 mm. Fruiting pedicels erect or ascending , (2-) 3-6(-7) mm, terete or subquadrangular, glabrous, stout, slightly narrower than fruit. Fruit linear, (1.5-) 2-4(-5) cm × 1.2-1.5 mm, terete-subquadrangular, torulose , erect to erect-ascending; gynophore to 0.3 mm; valves apex obtuse to subacute ; style stout, 0.5-1(-1.2) mm. Seeds brown, ovate or oblong, 1.2-1.5 × 0.9-1 mm, uniseriate , somewhat plump, wingless. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 16. [source]

Habit: Forb/herb

Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: yellow

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 6-12" tall.

Habitat

Open grasslands, scree, temperate mixed forests , river and streamsides, moist grassy slopes ; 400-2100 m [1].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).[2]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Biennial, Perennial

Growth

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

B. cochlearifolia H. Boissieu • B. hondoensis Nakai • B. orthoceras var. formosana Kitamura • B. patens H. Boissieu • B. vulgaris R. Brown var. orthoceras (Ledebour) Regel. • Barbarea americana Rydb. • Barbarea americana Rydberg • Barbarea orthoceras var. dolichocarpa Fern. • Barbarea Vulgaris Orthoceras • Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. var. orthoceras (Ledeb.) Regel • Campe Orthoceras

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 2009

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Barbarea

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

B. australis (Native Wintercress) · B. balcana (Balkan Yellow Rocket) · B. bosniaca (Bosnian Yellow Rocket) · B. grandiflora (Kazbegis Arabula) · B. intermedia (Medium-Flowered Winter-Cress) · B. lutea (Artvin Kuduzotu) · B. orthoceras (American Winter-Cress) · B. stricta (Small Flowered Winter Cress) · B. verna (Belle Isle Cress) · B. vulgaris (Creasy) · B. vulgaris var. hirsuta (Yellow Rocket) · B. vulgaris 'Variegata' (Creasy) · B. vulgaris 'Variegated Winter' (Upland Cress)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. "Barbarea orthoceras". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 111. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Mean = 783.100 meters (2,569.226 feet), Standard Deviation = 786.470 based on 782 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-21