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Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Grassleaf Orache, Grass-Leaved Orache, Narrow-Leaf Atriplex, Narrow-Leaved Atriplex, Shore Orache
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Arroche Des Rivages, Arroche Du Littoral
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Hosoba Hama Akaza
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Swedish:
, or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate
. Flowers small, bisexual
, or sterile
and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads
, or thyrsoid
structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious
. Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23) -veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments
into a cup
or ± entirely into a tube
, filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers
(1- or) 2-loculed, dorsifixed
, introrsely dehiscent
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent
, short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate
, 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform
branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy
capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular
, subglobose, or shortly cylindric
About 70 genera and 900 species: worldwide; 15 genera (one introduced ) and 44 species (three endemic, 14 introduced) in China.
Morphology of the androecium, perianth (tepals), and the inflorescence has traditionally been used to circumscribe genera and tribes . Pseudostaminodia are interstaminal appendages with variously shaped apices. Filament appendages are the lateral appendages of filaments (one on each side) . The basic structure of the inflorescence is the cyme (branchlets arising from the bracteole axils, the bracteoles serving as bracts for upper flowers), which can be reduced to one flower with two bracteoles and a bract. Units of dispersal vary considerably (capsules opening with lower part persistent, flower and bracteoles falling together, or cymose partial inflorescences breaking off above bract) and can be characteristic for genera. Several genera possess long trichomes serving dispersal at the base of the tepals.
Herbs or shrubs, annual
, monoecious or dioecious, often with bladderlike hairs
to form silvery or scurfy
) vesture, less often with elongate
. Leaves persistent
or tardily deciduous, alternate, partially opposite, or opposite, sessile or petiolate
entire, serrate, or lobed
, with venation
either of Kranz-type or normal dicotyledonous
type, axillary buds inconspicuous or lacking. Inflorescences axillary
; flowers borne in axillary clusters or glomerules
, or in terminal spikes or spicate
flowers with 3-5-parted calyx, ebracteate
; stamens 3-5. Pistillate
flowers lacking perianth, pistil naked, or in few species with (1-) 3-5-lobed perianth, commonly enclosed within pair of foliaceous
bracteoles; stigmas 2. Fruiting bracteoles enlarged in fruit, of various shapes
and variously connate
or not, thickened, and appendaged; pericarp free
, tightly enclosed in the fruiting bracteoles. Seeds flattened, mainly vertical
; radicle inferior, lateral
, or superior. x = 9.
Species ca. 250: worldwide, mainly in subarctic , temperate , and subtropical regions.
Many species of Atriplex are halophytic, others occupy soils low in dissolved particulates.
Prior to the 1900s, the genus Suckleya was treated within Atriplex, but its obcompressed fruiting bracteoles are quite unlike anything in Atriplex, and the plants were recognized as a distinct genus.
Species Atriplex littoralis
Herbs, monoecious or sub-dioecious, 2.5-7.5(-10) dm. Stems erect or forming sprawling tangled clumps and mostly green; branches erect-ascending, proximal ones opposite and ascending , sparsely scurfy when young, obtusely angled . Leaves alternate or only proximalmost opposite, all shortly petiolate ; blade green on both surfaces, linear , linear-oblong, linear-lanceolate, or oblong , (10-) 25-80(-120) × 2-8(-12) mm, thin, gradually narrowed, margin mostly entire or some sinuate-dentate with antrorse teeth, apex obtuse to acuminate. Inflorescences of long, dense or interrupted hairy spikes often forming panicle to 20 cm; staminate flowers 4-5-merous. Pistillate bracteoles sessile, triangular to ovate or ovate-rhombic, (3-) 5-7 mm, mostly denticulate , rarely subentire , faces tuberculate almost distinct , green becoming brown or black. Seeds dimorphic : brown, 2-2.8 mm wide, round and ± flattened, or black, 1.5-2 mm wide, round, evenly convex ; radicle inferior. 2n = 18. [source]
Sea beaches and other saline habitats , old ports and ballast dumps; mainly below 100 m .
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 46 meters (152 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Amaranthaceae () - Adanson, 1763 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - amaranthes, pigweed
- Suborder: Chenopodiineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A. patula Linnaeus var. littoralis (Linnaeus) A. gray • A. patula littoralis (Linnaeus) H. M. Hall & Clements • Atriplex hastata Linnaeus var. littoralis (Linnaeus) Farwell • Atriplex Hastata Littoralis • Atriplex Littoralis • Atriplex patula L. var. littoralis (L.) A. Gray • Atriplex patula L. littoralis (L.) H. M. Hall & Clem. • Chenopodium littorale (L.) Thunb.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Atriplex
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 147 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. acadiensis (Maritime Saltbush) · A. acanthocarpa (Armed Saltbush) · A. acanthocarpa acanthocarpa (Parish's Glasswort) · A. acanthocarpa subsp. coahuilensis (Tuburcled Saltbush) · A. alaskensis (Alaska Orache) · A. alba (Lambsquarters Goosefoot) · A. ambrosioides (West Indian Goosefoot) · A. aptera (Moundscale) · A. argentea argentea (Sack Saltbush) · A. argentea argentea var. argentea (Silverscale Saltbush) · A. argentea expansa (Silverscale) · A. argentea longitrichoma (Silverscale) · A. argentea typica (Silverscale) · A. argentea var. argentea (Silverscale Saltbush) · A. argentea var. caput-medusae (Stalked Saltbush) · A. argentea var. hillmanii (Hillman's Silverscale Saltbush) · A. argentea subsp. expansa (Silverscale Saltbush) · A. aristata (Sea Foam Flower) · A. asterocarpa (Chinle Saltbush) · A. barclayana (Barclay's Saltbush) · A. bonnevillensis (Bonneville Saltbush) · A. botrys (Jerusalem Oak Goosefoot) · A. californica (California Saltbush) · A. calotheca (Halberdleaf Orach) · A. canescens (Four-Wing Saltbush) · A. canescens var. angustifolia (Fourwing Saltbush) · A. canescens var. canescens (Fourwing Saltbush) · A. canescens var. gigantea (Fourwing Saltbush) · A. canescens var. laciniata (Fourwing Saltbush) · A. canescens var. linearis (Fourwing Saltbush) · A. canescens var. macilenta (Fourwing Saltbush) · A. confertifolia (Shad-Scale Saltbush) · A. cordulata (Heart-Leaf Saltbush) · A. coronata (Crown Saltbush) · A. coronata notatior var. notatior (San Jacinto Valley Crownscale) · A. coronata var. coronata (Crownscale) · A. coronata var. notatior (San Jacinto Valley Crownscale) · A. corrugata (Mat Saltbush) · A. coulteri (Coulter's Saltbush) · A. cristata (Crested Saltbush) · A. cuneata (Castlevalley Saltbush) · A. cuneata cuneata (Castlevalley Saltbush) · A. cuneata introgressa (Castlevalley Saltbush) · A. cuneata subsp. introgressa (Castlevalley Saltbush) · A. depressa (Bittlescale) · A. drymarioides (Seashore Saltbush) · A. eardleyae (Small Saltbush) · A. elegans (Wheel-Scale Saltbush) · A. elegans var. elegans (Wheelscale) · A. elegans var. fasciculata (Wheelscale) · A. elegans var. thornberi (Wheelscale) · A. endolepis (Endolepis) · A. erecticaulis (Erectstem Saltbush) · A. expansa expansa (Silverscale Saltbush) · A. falcata (Sickle Saltbush) · A. franktonii (Frankton's Saltbush) · A. fruticulosa (Ball Saltbush) · A. gardneri (Gardner's Saltbush) · A. garrettii (Garrett Saltbush) · A. glabriuscula (Northeastern Saltbush) · A. gmelinii (Gmelin's Saltbush) · A. graciliflora (Slender-Flower Saltbush) · A. griffithsii (Griffith's Saltbush) · A. halimus (Mediterranean Saltbush) · A. hillmanii (Hillman's Silverscale Saltbush) · A. holocarpa (Pop Saltbush) · A. hortensis (Garden Orach) · A. hortensis var. rubra (Mountain Spinach) · A. hortensis 'Burgundy' (Mountain Spinach) · A. hortensis 'Crimson Plume' (Mountain Spinach) · A. hortensis 'Golden' (Mountain Spinach) · A. hortensis 'Oracle' (Mountain Spinach) · A. hymenelytra (Desert Holly) · A. joaquiniana (San Joaquin Saltbush) · A. johnstonii (Johnson's Saltbush) · A. klebergorum (Kleberg's Saltbush) · A. laciniata (Cut-Leaf Saltbush) · A. lampa (South American Saltbush) · A. lentiformis (Big Saltbush) · A. lentiformis breweri (Big Saltbush) · A. lentiformis lentiformis (Big Saltbush) · A. lentiformis subsp. breweri (Quailbush) · A. leucophylla (Beach Saltbush) · A. lindleyi (Lindley's Saltbush) · A. littoralis (Grassleaf Orache) · A. longipes (Long-Stalked Orache) · A. matamorensis (Matamoros Saltbush) · A. maximowicziana (Maximowicz's Saltbush) · A. micrantha (Two-Scale Orache) · A. minuscula (Lesser Saltbush) · A. minuticarpa (Tununk Saltbush) · A. muelleri (Mueller's Saltbush) · A. multifida (Cutleaf Goosefoot) · A. muralis (Nettle-Leaved Goosefoot) · A. navajoensis (Navajo Saltbush) · A. neomexicana (New Mexico Saltbush) · A. nitens (Hoary Orache) · A. nudicaulis (Baltic Saltbush) · A. nummularia (Bluegreen Saltbush) · A. nuttallii (Nuttall's Saltbush)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), The System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2676165
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-565019
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3027485
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:163932-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 311088
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 565019
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 163931-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ATPAL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24408
- Bojian Bao, Thomas Borsch & Steven E. Clemants "Amaranthaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 415. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Stanley L. Welsh "Atriplex". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 226, 260, 268, 293,. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Atriplex littoralis". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 332. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 201.850 based on 3,501 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]