Common Names in English:
Windham's Scaly Cloakfern, Windhams Scaly Cloakfern
40, species ca. 1000 (13 genera, 90 sp: worldwide.
Considerable disagreement exists concerning the circumscription and proper name of this family . The taxa comprising the Pteridaceae in this treatment were assigned to the Sinopteridaceae and Pteridaceae by D. B . Lellinger (1985) and were included in five families by R. E. G. Pichi-Sermolli (1977). The broad concept followed here is similar (except for the exclusion of Ceratopteris ) to that espoused by R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon (1982), who applied the name Pteridaceae to the group. Until very recently, the newer name Adiantaceae was more commonly used.
As represented in North America, Pteridaceae comprise three major evolutionary lines (the adiantoids, the pteroids, and the cheilanthoids). Characteristics holding the family together include abaxial (usually submarginal ) sori that lack indusia or are protected by a reflexed or revolute leaf margin , spores that are usually globose-tetrahedral and trilete, and chromosome base numbers of 30 or 29 (rarely 27). The xeric-adapted members of the family (particularly the cheilanthoids) have undergone extensive parallel and convergent evolution, and they have frustrated attempts to produce a natural generic classification based on macromorphologic characteristics alone. Although some workers have aggregated species into a few large genera (e.g. , J. T. Mickel 1979b), most tend to recognize smaller segregate genera based on a combination of morphologic, chromosomal, and biochemical data. The latter approach seems to provide a more useful, evolutionarily informative classification and is the one adopted here. Aspidotis and Notholaena are maintained here as distinct from Cheilanthes, and three recently described genera ( Argyrochosma, Astrolepis, and Pentagramma ) have been incorporated into the treatment. The reasons for these changes in generic circumscription are discussed under the individual genera.
usually on rock. Stems compact
to short-creeping, erect
, sparingly branched; scales
tan to chestnut brown, concolored to weakly bicolored
, linear-attenuate, margins
ciliate-dentate to entire. Leaves monomorphic
, densely clustered, 7--130 cm. Petiole
chestnut brown or straw-colored, rounded
adaxially, sparsely to densely covered with scales, with 2 vascular bundles
to linear-oblong, 1-pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid, leathery, abaxially covered with overlapping, lanceolate to ovate
, ciliate scales
with underlying layer of stellate
scales, adaxially sparsely to densely covered with stellate or coarsely ciliate scales, often glabrescent
, dull, not striate
; rachis straight. Ultimate
segments (pinnae) stalked
from axis, ovate, oblong
or elongate-deltate, cordate to subcordate
or rarely truncate
, usually more than 4 mm wide; segment margins plane
, undifferentiated, not recurved to form false indusia. Veins of ultimate segments obscure
, pinnately branched and divergent distally. False indusium absent. Sporangia scattered
along veins near pinna margins (often clustered near notches
between pinna lobes
), containing 32 or 64 spores, not intermixed with farina-producing glands
. Spores light to dark brown, tetrahedral-globose, rugose
, lacking prominent
. Gametophytes glabrous
Species ca. 8: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America.
The species of Astrolepis have traditionally been assigned to either Notholaena (R. M. Tryon 1956) or Cheilanthes (J. T. Mickel 1979b; R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon 1982). Recent biosystematic analyses by D. M. Benham and M. D. Windham (1992) indicate, however, that the star-scaled cloak ferns form a distinctive, monophyletic group worthy of generic recognition. The combination of a chromosome base number of x = 29, pinnate leaves, two vascular bundles in the petioles, unique stellate or coarsely ciliate scales on the adaxial blade surface, and other characteristics separate Astrolepis from related genera.
Species Astrolepis windhamii
to short-creeping; stem scales uniformly tan or somewhat
darker near base
, to 15 mm, margins
ciliate-dentate to entire. Leaves
10--50 cm. Blade
pinnate-pinnatifid, pinna pairs 20--45. Pinnae ovate
to deltate, largest 7--15 mm, usually symmetrically lobed
6--11, broadly rounded
, separated by shallow sinuses; abaxial
concealing surface, lanceolate, usually 1--1.5 mm, ciliate
scales sparse, mostly persistent
, attached at base, body 2--4 cells
containing 32 spores. n = 2 n = 87, apogamous. Sporulating summer--fall.
Recent isozyme analyses (D. M. Benham 1989) indicate that Astrolepis windhamii is an apogamous allotriploid that contains three different genomes, one each from A. sinuata, A. cochisensis, and an unnamed Mexican taxon related to A. crassifolia. Because of this genomic constitution , Astrolepis windhamii tends to bridge the morphologic gap between A. sinuata and A. integerrima, which is itself a hybrid between A. cochisensis and the unnamed Mexican species. Although the features that separate these taxa are subtle, the pinna lobing and scale characteristics of A. windhamii mentioned in the key adequately distinguish them in most cases. [source]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Family: Pteridaceae () - Kirchn. - Maidenhair Fern Family Plants perennial [annual],
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : D.M.Benham Publication : Amer. Fern J. 82: 60, fig. 1 1992
Members of the genus Astrolepis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. cochisensis arizonica (Cochise Scaly Cloakfern) · A. cochisensis chihuahuaensis (Chihuahua Scaly Cloakfern) · A. cochisensis subsp. arizonica (Arizona Scaly Cloakfern) · A. integerrima (Astrolepis) · A. sinuata (Wavy Scaly Cloakfern) · A. sinuata mexicana (Cochise Scaly Cloakfern) · A. sinuata subsp. mexicana (Mexican Scaly Cloakfern) · A. windhamii (Windham's Scaly Cloakfern)
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- Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns & Fern-allies of the United States & Canada. Washington.
- Mickel, J. T. 1979b. The fern genus Cheilanthes in the continental United States. Phytologia 41: 431--437.
- Pichi-Sermolli, R. E. G. 1977. Tentamen pteridophytorum genera in taxonomicum ordinem redigendi. Webbia 31: 313--512.
- Tryon, R. M. and A. F. Tryon. 1982. Ferns and Allied Plants, with Special Reference to Tropical America. New York, Heidelberg, and Berlin.
- Benham, D. M. 1989. A Biosystematic Revision of the Fern Genus Astrolepis (Adiantaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. Northern Arizona University.
- Benham, D. M. 1992. Additional combinations in Astrolepis. Amer. Fern J. 82: 59--62.
- Benham, D. M. and M. D. Windham. 1992. Generic affinities of the star-scaled cloak ferns. Amer. Fern J. 82: 47--58.
- Hevly, R. H. 1965. Studies of the sinuous cloak fern (Notholaena sinuata) complex. J. Arizona Acad. Sci. 3: 205--208.
- Tryon, R. M. 1956. A revision of the American species of Notholaena. Contr. Gray Herb. 179: 1--106.
- "Astrolepis windhamii". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 28, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 3 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Arizona State University, International Institute for Species Exploration: Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Arizona State University, International Institute for Species Exploration: The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2665773
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-500982
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:303731-2
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 500982
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 303731-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPADI0P030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ASWI4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 23997
- Michael D. Windham "Pteridaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Dale M. Benham, Michael D. Windham "Astrolepis". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Astrolepis windhamii". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]