Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Maidenhair Spleenwort, Common Maidenhair
Common Names in French:
, on rock, or rarely epiphytic. Stems erect
or nearly erect, rarely long-creeping, scaly
. Steles radially symmetric
or dorsiventral (with structurally distinct
) dictyosteles. Leaves monomorphic
, rarely almost dimorphic
leaves taller and more erect than sterile
with 1 vascular bundle X-shaped in cross
or with 2 vascular bundles
back to back and C-shaped. Blades
to 4-pinnate, commonly with tiny glandular
and a few linear scales
, rarely with spreading
hairs. Veins free
to anastomosing. Sori borne on veins, ± lunate
. Indusia usually present, shape
conforming to sorus and originating along 1 side of sorus. Sporangia with stalk
of 1 row
, annulus vertical
stalk. Spores monolete; perispore
, or perforate
. Gametophytes surficial
, green, cordate.
Genera 1, species ca. 700 (1 genus, 28 species, and 3 nothospecies in the flora ) : worldwide.
Members of this family can usually be identified by the combination of clathrate stem scales and indusiate linear sori. Supporting anatomic characteristics include the two vascular bundles in the petiole that unite distally in the petiole to form an X-shaped petiolar strand , and the single row of cells in the sporangial stalk. The scales consist of cells with dark, thick, radial walls and clear, thin, tangential walls, giving the scales a clathrate (latticelike) appearance reminiscent of lead moldings between plates of stained glass.
As construed here, Aspleniaceae comprise a single, huge, extremely diverse genus, Asplenium . A satisfactory taxonomic division into subgenera or satellite genera has not been possible because of the absence of any significant gaps . Various segregates have been proposed (e.g. , Camptosorus, Phyllitis, Ceterach, Pleurosorus ), but numerous "intergeneric" hybrids occur.
The members of Asplenium are popular with plant evolutionists, field naturalists, and fern gardeners, not only because of the interesting morphology of the plants but also because of their remarkable ability to form spectacular hybrids, often combining dramatically different leaf shapes. In North America, 23 diploid hybrids and allopolyploids have been recorded. At least two of these hybrid combinations occur as both sterile diploids and their fertile allotetraploid derivatives. Only those hybrids that are reproductively competent (through vigorous clone-forming by root proliferations or apogamy, or rarely through sexual reproduction) are treated in the key and fully described below.
Only about two-fifths of the reproductively competent species are believed to be cladistically divergent species; the other three-fifths are of hybrid origin (allopolyploids) . For two of the allotetraploids, sterile diploids of the same parentage are also known. The most unusual allopolyploid phytogeographically is Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, the parents of which are known only in the Old World. These reticulate relationships are summarized in the reticulogram.
Polyploidy is widespread in Asplenium, and the chromosome numbers vary from 2 x to 6 x . Two species, Asplenium trichomanes and A . heterochroum, occur in different levels of polyploidy---2 x and 4 x, and 4 x and 6 x, respectively. The highest chromosome number known for Asplenium in North America is 2 n = 216 (in A . trichomanes-dentatum and the hexaploid form of A . heterochroum ) . The only three apogamous taxa are A . monanthes (3 x ), A . resiliens (3 x ), and A . Ã— heteroresiliens (5 x ) .
, not proliferous or proliferous and producing tiny plantlets
. Stems erect
, rarely long-creeping; scales
basally attached, clathrate. Petioles
1--4-pinnate, of diverse
size and shape
. Indusia present. x
Species ca. 700 (28 species, 3 nothosp: worldwide.
Species Asplenium trichomanes
not proliferous. Stems short-creeping, often branched; scales
black throughout or with brown borders
, lanceolate, 2--5 ×
0.2--0.5 mm, margins
entire to denticulate
. Leaves monomorphic
reddish brown or blackish brown throughout, lustrous
, 1--4(--7) cm,
absent or of black, linear-lanceolate
scales at base
. Blade linear, 1-pinnate, 3--22 ×
0.5--1.5 cm, thin, glabrous
or sparsely pubescent
; base gradually
tapered; apex narrowly acute, not rooting
. Rachis reddish brown throughout,
lustrous, glabrous or nearly so. Pinnae in 15--35 pairs, oblong
pinnae 2.5--8 × 2.5--4 mm; base broadly cuneate,
with or without low, rounded
; margins shallowly
to serrate or ± entire; apex obtuse
. Veins free
Sori 2--4 pairs per pinna, on both basiscopic and acroscopic sides.
Spores 64 per sporangium. 2 n = 72, 144. [source]
In North America, as in Europe, Asplenium trichomanes consists of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes , treated here as subspecies . Asplenium trichomanes subsp. trichomanes, the diploid, is found on noncalcareous rocks. In the southwestern United States it occurs at high elevations . Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens, the tetraploid, grows on calcareous substrates and has a more northern distribution (R. C. Moran 1982). Triploid hybrids are known between the diploids and tetraploids (R. C. Moran 1982; W. H. Wagner Jr. and F. S. Wagner 1966). [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: n/a • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,028 meters (0 to 13,215 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Spleenwort Family
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Spleenwort [Greek splen, spleen; thought by Dioscorides to be useful for treating spleen diseases]
- Specific epithet:
- Bristle fern [Greek thrix, hair, and manes, cup, alluding to the hairlike receptacle extending from the cuplike involucre]
- Botanical name: - Asplenium trichomanes L.
- Specific epithet: trichomanes - L. - Bristle fern [Greek thrix, hair, and manes, cup, alluding to the hairlike receptacle extending from the cuplike involucre]
- Genus: Asplenium () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Spleenwort [Greek splen, spleen; thought by Dioscorides to be useful for treating spleen diseases]
- Family: Aspleniaceae () - Newman - Spleenwort Family
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 1080 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Asplenium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 165 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. abscissum (Abscised Spleenwort) · A. acuminatum (Taper-Tip Spleenwort) · A. adiantum-nigrum (Black Spleenwort) · A. adiantum-nigrum woronowii (Black Spleenwort) · A. adulterinum (Ladder Spleenwort) · A. aethiopicum (Egyptian Spleenwort) · A. alternifolium (Alternateleaf Spleenwort) · A. auriculatum (Tree-Trunk Spleenwort) · A. auritum (Auricled Spleenwort) · A. auritum Sw. var. auritum Sw. (Eared Spleenwort) · A. auritum Sw. var. bipinnatifidum Kunze (Eared Spleenwort) · A. auritum var. auritum (Eared Spleenwort) · A. auritum var. bipinnatifidum (Eared Spleenwort) · A. australasicum (Birds Nest Fern) · A. australasicum forma australasicum (Bird´s-Nest Fern) · A. australasicum f. robinsonii (Bird´s-Nest Fern) · A. biscaynianum (Biscayne Spleenwort) · A. boydstoniae (Boydston's Spleenwort) · A. bradleyi (Bradley's Spleenwort) · A. bulbiferum (Hen and Chickens Fern) · A. caudatum (Speenwort) · A. ceterach (Rusty-Back Fern) · A. cirrhatum (Chestnut Scale Spleenwort) · A. clermontiae (Clermont's Spleenwort) · A. contiguum (Forest Spleenwort) · A. contiguum Kaulf. var. contiguum Kaulf. (Forest Spleenwort) · A. contiguum Kaulf. var. hirtulum C.Chr. (Forest Spleenwort) · A. contiguum var. contiguum (Forest Spleenwort) · A. contiguum var. hirtulum (Forest Spleenwort) · A. corderoanum (Rio Abajo Spleenwort) · A. cristatum (Parsley Spleenwort) · A. cuneatum (Wedge-Leaf Spleenwort) · A. curtissii (Curtiss' Spleenwort) · A. dalhousiae (Countess Dalhousie's Spleenwort) · A. densum (Dense Spleenwort) · A. ebenoides (Dragon Tails Fern) · A. enatum (Queen Spleenwort) · A. esculentum (Vegetable Fern) · A. exiguum (Little Spleenwort) · A. feei (Fee's Spleenwort) · A. flabellifolium (Necklace Fern) · A. flabellulatum (Latin American Spleenwort) · A. flaccidum (Weeping Spleenwort) · A. flaccidum flaccidum (Weeping Spleenwort) · A. formosum (Showy Spleenwort) · A. goudeyi (Birds Nest Fern) · A. gravesii (Graves' Spleenwort) · A. haleakalense (Haleakala Spleenwort) · A. herb-wagneri (Herb's Spleenwort) · A. heterochroum (Bicolored Spleenwort) · A. heteroresiliens (Resilient Spleenwort) · A. hobdyi (Hobdy's Spleenwort) · A. horridum (Lacy Spleenwort) · A. inexpectatum (Spleenwort) · A. insiticium (Royal Spleenwort) · A. juglandifolium (Walnut Spleenwort) · A. kaulfussii (Kaulfuss Spleenwort) · A. kentuckiense (Kentucky Spleenwort) · A. laetum (Brownstem Spleenwort) · A. lobulatum (Piipiilau Manamana) · A. macraei (Macrae's Spleenwort) · A. monanthes (Single-Sorus Spleenwort) · A. montanum (Mountain Spleenwort) · A. morganii (Morgan's Spleenwort) · A. myriophyllum (Limestone Spleenwort) · A. neobrackenridgei (Neobrackenridge's Spleenwort) · A. nidus (Bird's Nest Fern) · A. nidus var. plicatum (Bird's Nest Fern) · A. nidus 'Antiquum' (Japanese Birds Nest) · A. nidus 'Osaka' (Osaka Bird's Nest Fern) · A. nidus 'Ruffled' (Ruffled Birds Nest Fern) · A. nodosum (Nodeless Danafern) · A. normale (Rainforest Spleenwort) · A. oblongifolium (Shining Spleenwort) · A. obtusatum (Shore Spleenwort) · A. obtusifolium (Bluntleaf Spleenwort) · A. ocoense (Rockledge Spleenwort) · A. palmeri (Palmer Spleenwort) · A. patens (Spreading Spleenwort) · A. pinnatifidum (Lobed Spleenwort) · A. platyneuron (Ebony Spleenwort) · A. platyneuron var. bacculum-rubrum (Ebony Spleenwort) · A. platyneuron var. platyneuron (Ebony Spleenwort) · A. platyneuron var. proliferum (Ebony Spleenwort) · A. plenum (Ruffled Spleenwort) · A. polyodon (Petako) · A. polyodon G.Forst. var. knudsenii (Hbd.) Morton (Knudsen's Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon G.Forst. var. nitidulum (Skottsb.) Morton (Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon G.Forst. var. sectum (Hbd.) Morton (Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon G.Forst. var. subcaudatum (Skottsb.) Morton (Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon var. knudsenii (Knudsen's Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon var. nitidulum (Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon var. sectum (Birdnest Fern) · A. polyodon var. subcaudatum (Birdnest Fern) · A. pseudoerectum (Antilles Spleenwort) · A. pteropus (West Indian Spleenwort) · A. pumilum (Dwarf Spleenwort) · A. radicans (Dullgreen Spleenwort) · A. resiliens (Black-Stem Spleenwort) · A. rhizophyllum (Walking Fern)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644565
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17364
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5194646
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17565720-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 5594
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17364
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17052890
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPASP021K0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ASTRT
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22200
- Wagner, Warren H. Jr., Robbin C. Moran, and Charles R. Werth "Aspleniaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Warren H. Wagner Jr., Robbin C. Moran, Charles R. Werth "Asplenium". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 198.080 meters (649.869 feet), Standard Deviation = 249.990 based on 17,505 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]