- In the laboratory, this herb has been effective as a deterrent against corn wireworm, a serious crop pest.
Common Names in English:
Butterfly Milkweed, Butterfly Weed, Butterfly-Weed, Butterflyweed, Chiegerflower, Flame Weed, Gay Butterflies, Gay Butterflies Milkweed, Milkweed, Pleurisy Root, Pleurisy-Root
, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
frequently woody. Leaves opposite or whorled
, short petiolate
. Cymes terminal
, umbel-like, many flowered. Calyx glands
5-10. Corolla rotate, deeply parted
or rarely overlapping to right
lobes 5, inserted
on gynostegium, erect, apex hooded
, with an incurved
, ligular-hornlike adaxial
. Stamens inserted at base of corolla tube
into a tube; anther
appendages incurved; pollinia 2 per pollinarium
, pendulous. Stigma head
. Follicles fusiform
, apex acuminate. Seeds flat, with a long coma.
About 120 species: America, some naturalized in Old World; one species in China.
Habit: Erect , tuberous perennial . • Growth Form: Multiple Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bright orange, red, or yellow flowers in upright clusters . Fragrant. Attracts hummingbirds, butterflies. Blooms in mid to late summer. • Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: orange, red, yellow
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 70000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit: Pubescent , tapering 6" long silky seed pods on nodding stalks . • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Lanceolate, mid- to light-green leaves. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Fast. • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 2.0 • Size: 24-36" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Butterfly gardens. Borders . Cut flowers. Dried flower. Naturalizing. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . For a neat appearance , remove old foliage before new leaves emerge . Divide clumps every 2 to 3 years in early spring .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,108 meters (0 to 10,197 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Organic , sandy, well-drained soil. • Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Minimum Precipitation: 28 • Maximum Precipitation: 45 • Moisture Use: Low • Water Requirements: Once established needs only occasional water.
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -33°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 135 • Heat Zones: High: 9 (>120 to 150 days) Low:3 (>7 to 14 days) (map) • Cold Hardiness: High:9 (20 to 30 F) Low:4 (-30 to -20 F) (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Asclepias tuberosa interior (Woods.) Shinners • Asclepias tuberosa L. var. interior (Woods.) Shinners • Asclepias tuberosa var. interior (Woods.) Shinners
Publishing author : Roxb. Publication : Fl. Ind. ii. 38
Members of the genus Asclepias
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 110 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. albicans (Wax Milkweed) · A. amplexicaulis (Blunt-Leaf Milkweed) · A. angustifolia (Arizona Milkweed) · A. arenaria (Sand Milkweed) · A. asperula (Antelope Horns) · A. asperula capricornu (Antelope Horns) · A. asperula subsp. capricornu (Antelope Horns) · A. brevipes (Asclepias) · A. californica (California Milkweed) · A. californica greenei (Bract Milkweed) · A. californica var. callifolia (California Milkweed) · A. californica subsp. greenei (Greene's Milkweed) · A. cancellata (Asclepias) · A. cinerea (Carolina Milkweed) · A. connivens (Large-Flower Milkweed) · A. cordifolia (Heart-Leaf Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras (Davis Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras cryptoceras (Humboldt County Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras davisii (Humboldt Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras subsp. davisii (Davis' Milkweed) · A. curassavica (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Deep Red' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Formula Mix' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Gold' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Scarlet' (Bloodflower) · A. curtissii (Curtiss Milkweed) · A. cutleri (Cutler Milkweed) · A. davisii davisii (Davis' Milkweed) · A. emoryi (Emory's Milkweed) · A. engelmanniana (Engelmann's Milkweed) · A. eriocarpa (Indian Milkweed) · A. erosa (Desert Milkweed) · A. exaltata (Poke Milkweed) · A. fascicularis (Mexican Whorled Milkweed) · A. feayi (Florida Milkweed) · A. fruticosa (Swan Plant Milkweed) · A. glaucescens (Nodding Milkweed) · A. hallii (Hall Milkweed) · A. hirtella (Green Milkweed) · A. humistrata (Pine-Woods Milkweed) · A. hypoleuca (Mahogany Milkweed) · A. incarnata (Butterfly Weed) · A. incarnata incarnata (Purple Milkweed) · A. incarnata pulchra (Rose Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Cinderella' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Ice Ballet' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata subsp. pulchra (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Soulmate' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. involucrata (Dwarf Milkweed) · A. labriformis (Jones Milkweed) · A. lanceolata (Fewflower Milkweed) · A. lanuginosa (Side-Cluster Milkweed) · A. latifolia (Broad-Leaf Milkweed) · A. lemmonii (Bigleaf Milkweed) · A. linaria (Mexican Milkweed) · A. linearis (Slim Milkweed) · A. longifolia (Long-Leaf Milkweed) · A. macrotis (Long-Hood Milkweed) · A. meadii (Mead's Milkweed) · A. michauxii (Michaux Milkweed) · A. nivea (Caribbean Milkweed) · A. nivea var. curassavica (Butterfly Flower) · A. nummularia (Tufted Milkweed) · A. nyctaginifolia (Mojave Milkweed) · A. obovata (Obovate Milkweed) · A. oenotheroides (Zizotes Milkweed) · A. ovalifolia (Dwarf Milkweed) · A. pedicellata (Savannah Milkweed) · A. perennis (Aquatic Milkweed) · A. physocarpa (Balloon Plant) · A. prostrata (Prostrate Milkweed) · A. pumila (Low Milkweed) · A. purpurascens (Purple Milkweed) · A. quadrifolia (Fourleaf Milkweed) · A. quinquedentata (Slim-Pod Milkweed) · A. racemosa (Talayote) · A. rubra (Red Milkweed) · A. rusbyi (Rusby's Milkweed) · A. scaposa (Bear Mountain Milkweed) · A. solanoana (Serpentine Milkweed) · A. speciosa (Greek Milkweed) · A. sperryi (Sperry's Milkweed) · A. stenophylla (Narrow-Leaved Milkweed) · A. subulata (Desert Milkweed) · A. subverticillata (Bedstraw Milkweed) · A. sullivantii (Prairie Milkweed) · A. syriaca (Broadleaf Milkweed) · A. texana (Texas Milkweed) · A. tomentosa (Tuba Milkweed) · A. tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa interior (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa rolfsii (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa var. clay (Butterfly Weed) · A. tuberosa 'Hello Yellow' (Hellow Yellow Butterfly Weed) · A. tuberosa subsp. interior (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa subsp. rolfsii (Rolfs' Milkweed) · A. tuberosa subsp. tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. uncialis (Greene Milkweed) · A. uncialis uncialis (Wheel Milkweed)
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- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3874910
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30313
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744943
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:94705-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 4480
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30313
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 94703-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDASC02210
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ASRO6 ASTU
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 23097
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- Mean = 272.400 meters (893.701 feet), Standard Deviation = 337.300 based on 2,715 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]