- This is one of the prettiest milkweeds, it likes to grow near water.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Butterfly Weed, Rose Milkweed, Swamp Milkweed
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Spanish:
, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
frequently woody. Leaves opposite or whorled
, short petiolate
. Cymes terminal
, umbel-like, many flowered. Calyx glands
5-10. Corolla rotate, deeply parted
or rarely overlapping to right
lobes 5, inserted
on gynostegium, erect, apex hooded
, with an incurved
, ligular-hornlike adaxial
. Stamens inserted at base of corolla tube
into a tube; anther
appendages incurved; pollinia 2 per pollinarium
, pendulous. Stigma head
. Follicles fusiform
, apex acuminate. Seeds flat, with a long coma.
About 120 species: America, some naturalized in Old World; one species in China.
Habit: Forb/herb • Growth Form: Rhizomatous • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bright pink flowers in compact terminal clusters . Attracts butterflies. Blooms in summer. • Bloom Period: Fall • Flower Color: pink, purple • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 700000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit: Ornamental seed pods. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Long narrow dark green leaves on sturdy stems. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 4.9 • Size: 2-3' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Mass planting . Borders . Naturalizing.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,370 meters (0 to 7,776 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space 12-24" apart.
Soil: Prefers moist, boggy soil. • Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: High • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.0 • Maximum pH: 8.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 15 • Maximum Precipitation: 65 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 107 • Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Series: tion of American wild flowers that bloom in J ()
- Order: Gentianales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Asclepias
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 110 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. albicans (Wax Milkweed) · A. amplexicaulis (Blunt-Leaf Milkweed) · A. angustifolia (Arizona Milkweed) · A. arenaria (Sand Milkweed) · A. asperula (Antelope Horns) · A. asperula capricornu (Antelope Horns) · A. asperula subsp. capricornu (Antelope Horns) · A. brevipes (Asclepias) · A. californica (California Milkweed) · A. californica greenei (Bract Milkweed) · A. californica var. callifolia (California Milkweed) · A. californica subsp. greenei (Greene's Milkweed) · A. cancellata (Asclepias) · A. cinerea (Carolina Milkweed) · A. connivens (Large-Flower Milkweed) · A. cordifolia (Heart-Leaf Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras (Davis Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras cryptoceras (Humboldt County Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras davisii (Humboldt Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras subsp. davisii (Davis' Milkweed) · A. curassavica (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Deep Red' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Formula Mix' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Gold' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Scarlet' (Bloodflower) · A. curtissii (Curtiss Milkweed) · A. cutleri (Cutler Milkweed) · A. davisii davisii (Davis' Milkweed) · A. emoryi (Emory's Milkweed) · A. engelmanniana (Engelmann's Milkweed) · A. eriocarpa (Indian Milkweed) · A. erosa (Desert Milkweed) · A. exaltata (Poke Milkweed) · A. fascicularis (Mexican Whorled Milkweed) · A. feayi (Florida Milkweed) · A. fruticosa (Swan Plant Milkweed) · A. glaucescens (Nodding Milkweed) · A. hallii (Hall Milkweed) · A. hirtella (Green Milkweed) · A. humistrata (Pine-Woods Milkweed) · A. hypoleuca (Mahogany Milkweed) · A. incarnata (Butterfly Weed) · A. incarnata incarnata (Purple Milkweed) · A. incarnata pulchra (Rose Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Cinderella' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Ice Ballet' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata subsp. pulchra (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Soulmate' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. involucrata (Dwarf Milkweed) · A. labriformis (Jones Milkweed) · A. lanceolata (Fewflower Milkweed) · A. lanuginosa (Side-Cluster Milkweed) · A. latifolia (Broad-Leaf Milkweed) · A. lemmonii (Bigleaf Milkweed) · A. linaria (Mexican Milkweed) · A. linearis (Slim Milkweed) · A. longifolia (Long-Leaf Milkweed) · A. macrotis (Long-Hood Milkweed) · A. meadii (Mead's Milkweed) · A. michauxii (Michaux Milkweed) · A. nivea (Caribbean Milkweed) · A. nivea var. curassavica (Butterfly Flower) · A. nummularia (Tufted Milkweed) · A. nyctaginifolia (Mojave Milkweed) · A. obovata (Obovate Milkweed) · A. oenotheroides (Zizotes Milkweed) · A. ovalifolia (Dwarf Milkweed) · A. pedicellata (Savannah Milkweed) · A. perennis (Aquatic Milkweed) · A. physocarpa (Balloon Plant) · A. prostrata (Prostrate Milkweed) · A. pumila (Low Milkweed) · A. purpurascens (Purple Milkweed) · A. quadrifolia (Fourleaf Milkweed) · A. quinquedentata (Slim-Pod Milkweed) · A. racemosa (Talayote) · A. rubra (Red Milkweed) · A. rusbyi (Rusby's Milkweed) · A. scaposa (Bear Mountain Milkweed) · A. solanoana (Serpentine Milkweed) · A. speciosa (Greek Milkweed) · A. sperryi (Sperry's Milkweed) · A. stenophylla (Narrow-Leaved Milkweed) · A. subulata (Desert Milkweed) · A. subverticillata (Bedstraw Milkweed) · A. sullivantii (Prairie Milkweed) · A. syriaca (Broadleaf Milkweed) · A. texana (Texas Milkweed) · A. tomentosa (Tuba Milkweed) · A. tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa interior (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa rolfsii (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa var. clay (Butterfly Weed) · A. tuberosa 'Hello Yellow' (Hellow Yellow Butterfly Weed) · A. tuberosa subsp. interior (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa subsp. rolfsii (Rolfs' Milkweed) · A. tuberosa subsp. tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. uncialis (Greene Milkweed) · A. uncialis uncialis (Wheel Milkweed)
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- The Canadian journal; a repertory of industry, science, and art; and a record of the proceedings of the Canadian Institute. Toronto: Published by H. Scobie for the Council of the Canadian Institute. url p. 222.
- The Canadian naturalist and geologist. Montreal: B. Dawson, 1856-1868. url p. 129.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 353.
- The Entomologist. London: Edward Newman, 1840- url p. 86.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 1035, p. 1322, p. 457, p. 536, p. 63.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 154, p. 165, p. 198, p. 203, p. 315, p. 507, p. 544, p. 72, p. 83, p. 98.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 339, p. 339.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 112, p. 165, p. 197, p. 218, p. 231, p. 262, p. 360.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 40 1980 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 233.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 384, p. 416.
- The Indiana weed book, by W. S. Blatchley. Indianapolis, The Nature publishing company, 1920. url p. 106.
- The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Cincinnati: The Society, 1878/79 [i.e. 1878 or 1879]-1945. url p. 186, p. 233.
- The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS. Cedar Falls, Iowa: The Academy, 1988- url p. 122.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 22 1887 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 105.
- The Lancaster, farmer, a monthly journal: Lancaster, Pa., Wylie & Griest [etc., 1869]- url p. 168.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley: a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River / by Conway MacMillan. Minneapolis: Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 1892. url p. 698, p. 699, p. 746, p. 766.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota valley; a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota river. Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892 url p. 699, p. 746, p. 766.
- The Nautilus. Melbourne, Fla., etc., American Malacologists, inc., etc. url p. 24.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 306, p. 382, p. 502, p. 80.
- The Ottawa naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 156, p. 156, p. 28, p. 28.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 349.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 111, p. 42.
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 122, p. 292.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 39 1958 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 171, p. 18, p. 23, p. 232, p. 258, p. 258, p. 949.
- The University of Missouri studies. Columbia, Mo.: The University, 1905- url p. 29, p. 342.
- The bacteriology of diphtheria, including sections on the history, epidemiology and pathology of the disease, the mortality caused by it, the toxins and antitoxins and the serum disease, by F. Loeffler, Arthur Newsholme, F. B. Mallory, G. S. Graham-Smith, George Dean, William H. Park, Charles F. Bolduan. Ed. by G. H. F. Nuttall and G. S. Graham-Smith Cambridge [Eng.]University Press, 1913 url p. 230.
- The bogs and bog flora of the Huron River Valley. .. By Edgar Nelson Transeau. [Chicago]The University of Chicago Press url p. 145, p. 149, p. 151.
- The book of the seasons: or, The calendar of nature / by William Howitt. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1842. url p. 221.
- The botanical text-book, an introduction to scientific botany, both structural and systematic. For colleges, schools, and private students. By Asa Gray. New York, Putnam, 1850. url p. 456.
- The butterflies of the eastern United States and Canada: with special reference to New England / By Samuel Hubbard Scudder. Cambridge: The author, 1889. url p. 737.
- The century supplement to the dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / by Geo. Nicholson. .. [et al.]. Hyde Park, Mass.: Geo. T. King; 1901. url p. 77.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 234.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 132.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 146.
- The constitution and by-laws of the Ann Arbor Scientific Association with the proceedings for the year ending May 1, 1876.. ... Ann Arbor, Courier Steam Printing House, 1876. url p. 104.
- The drug plants of Illinois / Leo R. Tehon; drawings by Kay H. Wadsworth. Urbana, Ill.: Natural History Survey Division, 1951. url p. 123.
- The fishes of Champaign County, Illinois, as affected by 60 years of stream changes [by] R. Weldon Larimore [and] Philip W. Smith. Urbana, State of Illinois Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1963. url p. 313.
- The flora of Boulder, Colorado, and vicinity, by Francis Potter Daniels. .. [Columbia, Mo.]The University of Missouri, 1911. url p. 194.
- The flora of Franklin County [Indiana]. Richmond, 1885-1886 url p. 34.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
- The flora of Scott and Muscatine counties. By W.D. Barnes, Fred Reppert [and] A.A. Miller. Davenport, Iowa, 1901 url p. 238.
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 138.
- The flora of southwestern Colorado / by T.S. Brandegee. Washington: Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1876. url p. 242.
- The flora of the upper Susquehanna and its tributaries / by WJillard Nelson Clute. Binghamton, N.Y.: W.N. Clute, 1898. url p. 74.
- The florist's guide, New York, For sale by the author; Boston, J. Breck & co.; [etc., etc.]1844. url p. 30.
- The florist's guide; containing practical directions for the cultivation of annual, biennial, and perennial flowering plants, of different classes, herbaceous and shrubby, bulbous, fibrous, and tuberous-rooted; including By T. Bridgeman. New York: Printed by A. Hanford, 1847. url p. 30.
- The fruit, flower, and kitchen garden. By Patrick Neill. Adapted to the United States. Philadelphia, H. C. Baird, 1851. url p. 260.
- The gypsy moth. Porthetria dispar (Linn.). A report of the work of destroying the insect in the commonwealth of Massachusetts, together with an account of its history and habits both in Massachusetts and Europe. By Edward H. Forbush. .. and Charles H. Fernald. .. Published under the direction of the State Board of Agriculture by authority of the legislature. Boston, Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1896. url p. 321.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url p. 274.
- The life of inland waters: an elementary text book of fresh-water biology for American students / by James G. Needham and J.T. Lloyd. Ithaca: Comstock Pub. Co., 1916. url p. 345, p. 422.
- The life of inland waters; an elementary text book of fresh-water biology for students, by James G. Needham and J. T. Lloyd. Ithaca, New York, Comstock Publishing Co., 1937. url p. 345.
- The natural history and topography of Groton, Massachusetts / by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 15.
- The natural history of the Toronto region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 130.
- The natural history of the farm: a guide to the practical study of the sources of our living in wild nature / New York: Comstock Pub. Co.[c1914] url .
- The natural history of the farm; a guide to the practical study of the sources of our living in wild nature. Ithaca, N.Y., The Comstock Publishing Company, 1916. url .
- The orchids in the Ottawa District: floristics, phytogeography, population studies and historical review / Joyce M. Reddoch and Allan H. Reddoch. 111 1997 Ottawa, Canada: The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club,  url p. 138.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 164, p. 165, p. 173, p. 178, p. 471.
- The plant societies of Chicago and its vicinity. Chicago, The Geographic Society of Chicago url .
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 91.
- The plants of Prince Edward Island / Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1985. url p. 220.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url , .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 649.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 649.
- The practical fruit, flower and vegetable gardener's companion with calendar. By Patrick Neill. .. Adapted to the United States New York, C.M. Saxton and Co.[c1855] url p. 250, p. 250.
- The principles and practice of land drainage: embracing a brief history of underdraining; a detailed examination of its operation and advantages: a description of various kinds of drains, with practical directions for their construction: the manu By John H. Klippart. Cincinnati, R. Clarke & co., 1862. url p. 185.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a by L. H. Bailey; illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. . New York, The Macmillan Co.; [etc., etc.]1916-1917 [v.5 1916] url p. 1472.
- The subtropical garden, or, Beauty of form in the flower garden / by W. Robinson London: J. Murray, 1879 url p. 69.
- The subtropical garden: or, Beauty of form in the flower garden / by W. Robinson. London: J. Murray, 1891. url p. 69.
- The wayside flowers of summer: a study of the conspicuous herbaceous plants blooming upon our norther roadsides during the months of July and August / by Harriet L. Keeler; illustrated by Mary Keffer. New York: C. Scribner1917. url p. xix.
- The wayside flowers of summer; a study of the conspicuous herbaceous plants blooming upon our northern roadsides during the months of July and August, by Harriet L. Keeler; illustrated by Mary Keffer. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1917. url , p. 285.
- The weed flora of Iowa / [by L. H. Pammel; with the collaboration of Charlotte M. King. .. et al.] Des Moines: Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 462, p. 463.
- The weed flora of Iowa Des Moines, Iowa geological survey, 1913. url , , .
- The weed flora of Iowa. .. Des Moines, Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 462, p. 463, p. 777.
- The wild garden, or the naturalization and natural grouping of hardy exotic plants with a chapter on the garden of British wild flowers. London, J. Murray, 1894. url .
- The wild garden: or, Our groves and gardens made beautiful by the naturalisation of hardy exotic plants; being one way onwards from the dark ages of flower gardening, with suggestions for the regeneration of the bare by W. Robinson; illustrated by Alfred Parsons. London: J. Murray; 1883. url p. 128.
- The young gardener's assistant, in three parts containing catalogues of garden and flower seed, New York, For sale by the author and E. Walker [etc., 1847] url p. 30.
- The young gardener's assistant: in three parts containing catalogues of garden and flower seed, with practical directions under each head for the cultivation of culinary vegetables and flowers; also, directions for cultivating frui by Thomas Bridgeman. New York: For sale by the author, Broadway, corner of Eighteenth Street, 1845 url p. 30.
- Through glade and mead; a contribution to local natural history, Worcester, Mass., Putnam, Davis and Company, [c1894] url .
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 112, p. 125, p. 135, p. 146, p. 171, p. 186, p. 208, p. 209, p. 268, p. 53, p. 60, p. 71, p. 75.
- Transactions of Vassar Brothers Institute, and its Scientific Section. Poughkeepsie, N.Y.: Vassar Brothers Institute, [1883-1896]. url p. 187.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 132, p. 139, p. 139, p. 139, p. 571.
- Transactions of the American Entomological Society Philadelphia: The Society, 1890- url p. 60.
- Transactions of the American Institute of the City of New-York. [S.l.: s.n.], 1852- url p. 445.
- Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: W.Y. Morgan, 1903- url p. 194.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 107, p. 144, p. 147, p. 173, p. 184, p. 23, p. 23, p. 38, p. 43, p. 47, p. 69, p. 80, p. 81.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd series: Botany 2 1881-87 London. url p. 193.
- Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences. Baltimore: The Academy, 1901- url p. 59.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 85.
- University studies of the University of Nebraska. Lincoln. url p. 129, p. 80, p. 81, p. 84, p. 98.
- Useful wild plants of the United States and Canada, by Charles Francis Saunders. Illustrated with photographs by the author and with drawings by Lucy Hamilton Aring. New York, R. M. McBride & company, 1934. url p. 215.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 16, p. 3, p. 8.
- Water-lilies and how to grow them, with chapters on the proper making of ponds and the use of accessory plants, New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1907. url p. 209.
- Wayside flowers Series III. Being a description of American wild flowers that bloom in July, August and September / Boston;Taber-Prang Art, c1898. url .
- Weeds of the North Central States. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,  url p. 268, p. 299.
- Weeds of the farm and garden, by L. H. Pammel. New York: Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.], 1911. url p. 260.
- What England can teach us about gardening, by Wilhelm Miller. .. illustrated with one hundred and twelve photographic plates and eight plates in color. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & company, 1911. url p. 292.
- Who's who among the wild flowers / compiled and illustrated by W. I. Beecroft; with an introd. by Frances Duncan. New York: Moffat, Yard, 1910. url p. 242, p. 346.
- Who's who among the wild flowers; comp. and illustrated by W. I. Beecroft, with an introduction by Frances Duncan. New York, Moffat, Yard and company, 1910. url p. 242, p. 346.
- Wild flowers every child should know: arranged according to color with reliable descriptions of the more common species of the United States and Canada / by Frederic William Stack. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1909. url p. 396, p. 78.
- Wild flowers of New York, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1918. url , p. 222, p. 222, p. 223, p. 336.
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- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
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- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653378
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30241
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744323
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:94351-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 4472
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30241
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 94350-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDASC020U0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ASPU13 ASI
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22605
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- Mean = 319.850 meters (1,049.377 feet), Standard Deviation = 286.070 based on 1,078 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]