Common Names in English:
, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
frequently woody. Leaves opposite or whorled
, short petiolate
. Cymes terminal
, umbel-like, many flowered. Calyx glands
5-10. Corolla rotate, deeply parted
or rarely overlapping to right
lobes 5, inserted
on gynostegium, erect, apex hooded
, with an incurved
, ligular-hornlike adaxial
. Stamens inserted at base of corolla tube
into a tube; anther
appendages incurved; pollinia 2 per pollinarium
, pendulous. Stigma head
. Follicles fusiform
, apex acuminate. Seeds flat, with a long coma.
About 120 species: America, some naturalized in Old World; one species in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: chartreuse, cream, pale green, tan, yellow-green
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 15 meters (48 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Podostigma pedicellata (Walt.) Vail • Podostigma pedicellatum (Walter) Vail in Small
Publishing author : Walter
Members of the genus Asclepias
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 110 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. albicans (Wax Milkweed) · A. amplexicaulis (Blunt-Leaf Milkweed) · A. angustifolia (Arizona Milkweed) · A. arenaria (Sand Milkweed) · A. asperula (Antelope Horns) · A. asperula capricornu (Antelope Horns) · A. asperula subsp. capricornu (Antelope Horns) · A. brevipes (Asclepias) · A. californica (California Milkweed) · A. californica greenei (Bract Milkweed) · A. californica var. callifolia (California Milkweed) · A. californica subsp. greenei (Greene's Milkweed) · A. cancellata (Asclepias) · A. cinerea (Carolina Milkweed) · A. connivens (Large-Flower Milkweed) · A. cordifolia (Heart-Leaf Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras (Davis Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras cryptoceras (Humboldt County Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras davisii (Humboldt Milkweed) · A. cryptoceras subsp. davisii (Davis' Milkweed) · A. curassavica (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Deep Red' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Formula Mix' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Gold' (Bloodflower) · A. curassavica 'Silky Scarlet' (Bloodflower) · A. curtissii (Curtiss Milkweed) · A. cutleri (Cutler Milkweed) · A. davisii davisii (Davis' Milkweed) · A. emoryi (Emory's Milkweed) · A. engelmanniana (Engelmann's Milkweed) · A. eriocarpa (Indian Milkweed) · A. erosa (Desert Milkweed) · A. exaltata (Poke Milkweed) · A. fascicularis (Mexican Whorled Milkweed) · A. feayi (Florida Milkweed) · A. fruticosa (Swan Plant Milkweed) · A. glaucescens (Nodding Milkweed) · A. hallii (Hall Milkweed) · A. hirtella (Green Milkweed) · A. humistrata (Pine-Woods Milkweed) · A. hypoleuca (Mahogany Milkweed) · A. incarnata (Butterfly Weed) · A. incarnata incarnata (Purple Milkweed) · A. incarnata pulchra (Rose Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Cinderella' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Ice Ballet' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata subsp. pulchra (Swamp Milkweed) · A. incarnata 'Soulmate' (Swamp Milkweed) · A. involucrata (Dwarf Milkweed) · A. labriformis (Jones Milkweed) · A. lanceolata (Fewflower Milkweed) · A. lanuginosa (Side-Cluster Milkweed) · A. latifolia (Broad-Leaf Milkweed) · A. lemmonii (Bigleaf Milkweed) · A. linaria (Mexican Milkweed) · A. linearis (Slim Milkweed) · A. longifolia (Long-Leaf Milkweed) · A. macrotis (Long-Hood Milkweed) · A. meadii (Mead's Milkweed) · A. michauxii (Michaux Milkweed) · A. nivea (Caribbean Milkweed) · A. nivea var. curassavica (Butterfly Flower) · A. nummularia (Tufted Milkweed) · A. nyctaginifolia (Mojave Milkweed) · A. obovata (Obovate Milkweed) · A. oenotheroides (Zizotes Milkweed) · A. ovalifolia (Dwarf Milkweed) · A. pedicellata (Savannah Milkweed) · A. perennis (Aquatic Milkweed) · A. physocarpa (Balloon Plant) · A. prostrata (Prostrate Milkweed) · A. pumila (Low Milkweed) · A. purpurascens (Purple Milkweed) · A. quadrifolia (Fourleaf Milkweed) · A. quinquedentata (Slim-Pod Milkweed) · A. racemosa (Talayote) · A. rubra (Red Milkweed) · A. rusbyi (Rusby's Milkweed) · A. scaposa (Bear Mountain Milkweed) · A. solanoana (Serpentine Milkweed) · A. speciosa (Greek Milkweed) · A. sperryi (Sperry's Milkweed) · A. stenophylla (Narrow-Leaved Milkweed) · A. subulata (Desert Milkweed) · A. subverticillata (Bedstraw Milkweed) · A. sullivantii (Prairie Milkweed) · A. syriaca (Broadleaf Milkweed) · A. texana (Texas Milkweed) · A. tomentosa (Tuba Milkweed) · A. tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa interior (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa rolfsii (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa var. clay (Butterfly Weed) · A. tuberosa 'Hello Yellow' (Hellow Yellow Butterfly Weed) · A. tuberosa subsp. interior (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. tuberosa subsp. rolfsii (Rolfs' Milkweed) · A. tuberosa subsp. tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed) · A. uncialis (Greene Milkweed) · A. uncialis uncialis (Wheel Milkweed)
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- A general history of the dichlamydeous plants, comprising complete descriptions of the different orders; together with the characters of the genera and species, and an enumeration of the cultivated varieties. .. the scientific names accentuated, t By George Don. London, J.G. and F. Rivington [etc.]1831-38. url p. 146.
- A survey of natural areas in Brunswick County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url .
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 47 - 51 1980 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 34.
- Manual of botany, for North America: containing generic and specific descriptions of the indigenous plants and common cultivated exotics, growing north of the Gulf of Mexico / by Amos Eaton. Albany: Printed by Websters and Skinners, 1829. url p. 335.
- Natural areas inventory of Carteret County, North Carolina: for the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / [Raleigh]: N.C. Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, . url p. 68.
- North American botany; comprising the native and common cultivated plants, north of Mexico. Genera arranged according to the artificial and natural methods. By Amos Eaton. In the present edition the author is associated with John Wright. Troy, N. Y., E. Gates, 1840. url p. 364.
- Synoptical flora of North America. New York, American Book Company, 1878-1895/97 [v.2, pt. 1, 1878] url p. 88.
- Synoptical flora of North America: the Gamopetalæ, being a second edition of vol. I, part II, and vol. II, part I, collected. London, Iverson, Blakeman, Taylor, and Company;1886. url .
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653425
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30292
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744903
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:94531-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30292
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 94531-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDASC021E0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: POPE17
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 23078
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Asclepias". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 203. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 27.620 based on 56 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]