Common Names in English:
False Oat Grass, Oatgrass, Tall Oatgrass
tall, basal internodes often swollen into globose
corms. Leaf blades
, flat. Inflorescence a moderately dense panicle. Spikelets
weakly laterally compressed
, sometimes with an additional rudiment
, lower floret staminate
and strongly awned
, upper floret bisexual and weakly awned or awnless; rachilla disarticulating
but not between florets, extended beyond terminal
floret; glumes unequal, thin, lower glume 1/2 spikelet length or more, 1-veined, upper glume as long as spikelet, 3-veined; lemmas firmly membranous to subleathery, rounded
on back, 5-9-veined, apex 2-denticulate; lower lemma awned from near base
with twisted column, exserted from spikelet; upper lemma with a short straight awn or awnless; palea slightly shorter than lemma, keels ciliate
. Ovary apex hairy
Seven species: SW Asia, Europe, Mediterranean region; one species (introduced ) in China.
Species Arrhenatherum elatius
Culms erect or geniculate at base , rather stout, 1-1.5 m tall, 4-5-noded. Leaf sheaths loose , glabrous ; leaf blades 14-30 cm, 3-9 mm wide, scabrid or abaxial surface smooth , apex acuminate; ligule 1-3 mm, obtuse or truncate . Panicle lanceolate to oblong in outline, loose to rather dense, 10-25 cm, greenish or purplish, shining; branches clustered,scabrid. Spikelets oblong, 7-9 mm, florets separated by short rachilla internode not more than 0.6 mm; glumes lanceolate, apex acute; lower glume 4-6 mm, upper glume equal to spikelet, punctiform scabrid; lemmas oblong-lanceolate, 7-9 mm, sparsely pubescent in lower 1/3 or glabrous, scabrid in upper 1/3; awn of lower lemma 1-2 cm, arising from lower 1/3 of lemma back; awn of upper lemma 1-2 mm, arising above middle or near apex. Anthers 4-5 mm. 2n = 28. [source]
Habit: Graminoid • Growth Form: Bunch • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Early Summer • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 189120 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Moderate • Mature Height (feet): 4.0 • Size: 12-18" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Low • CaCO3 Tolerance: High • Minimum pH: 5.3 • Maximum pH: 7.3 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 32 • Maximum Precipitation: 45 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -43 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 145
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Family: Gramineae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Arrhenatherum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. elatius (False Oat Grass) · A. elatius bulbosum var. bulbosum (Tall Oatgrass) · A. elatius bulbosum 'Variegatum' (Bulbous Oat Grass) · A. elatius var. bulbosum (Tuber Oatgrass) · A. elatius var. elatius (Tall Oatgrass)
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- Part I. The living flora of West Virginia, by C. F. Millspaugh. Part II. The fossil flora of West Virginia, by David White. Wheeling, Wheeling news litho. co., 1913 url p. 76.
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- Plants of Iowa; a preliminary list of the native and introduced plants of the state, not under cultivation; comp. by Wesley Greene, secretary. Des Moines, Bishard brothers, printers, 1907. url p. 134, p. 134.
- Popular names of flowers, fruits, &c., as used in the county of Somerset and the adjacent parts of Devon, Dorset and Wilts. Yeovil, Western Gazette, 1922. url p. 209.
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- Records of seed distribution and cooperative experiments with grasses and forage plants. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1902. url p. 13.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url , p. 166, p. 61.
- Reports of the Survey. Botanical series. Minneapolis [etc.]1892- url p. 335, p. 96.
- Root-knot and its control. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 12.
- Rural California, by E. J. Wickson. New York, The Macmillan company, 1923. url p. 114, p. 393.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 387, p. 789.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 66.
- Some grasses of the Northeast: a key to their identification by vegetative characters. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1962. url p. 64, p. 66, p. 68, p. 71, p. 73, p. 75.
- Spicilegium florae Maroccanae / by John Ball. London: Printed by Taylor and Francis, 1878. url p. 745.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 188, p. 297.
- Strasburger's Text-book of botany. Rewritten by Dr. Hans Fitting. .. Dr. Ludwig Jost. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck. .. Dr. George Karsten. London, Macmillan, 1921. url p. 734.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 240, p. 445.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 228.
- The British rust fungi (Uredinales) their biology and classification, Cambridge, University Press, 1913. url , , , , , , .
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- The Macrolepidoptera of the world; a systematic description of the hitherto known Macrolepidoptera, ed. in collaboration with well-known specialists. Stuttgart: Seitz'schen (Kernen), 1906- url p. 236.
- The Monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture. Sacramento, Calif.: The Commission, 1911-1919. url p. 754.
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- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 165.
- The beginnings of agriculture in America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1923. url p. 242.
- The book of grasses: an illustrated guide to the common grasses, and the most common of the rushes and sedges / by Mary Evans Francis; illustrated by H.H. Knight, Arthur G. Eldredge and Sarah Francis Dorrance. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1912. url , p. 27.
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- The flora of North Carolina from Ranunculaceae to Salviniaceae / C.W. Hyams. Raleigh, N.C.: The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1899. url p. 355.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Arizona State University, International Institute for Species Exploration: Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Berkeley Natural History Museums: University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum: Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen: Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bioversity International: EURISCO
- Bioversity International: EURISCO, The European Genetic Resources Search Catalogue
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem: GEO Biodiversity Day
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland: Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Burke Museum: Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium (WTU)
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien: Observations du Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien.
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Wroclaw: Flora of Slowinski National Park, Poland
- Finnish Museum of Natural History: Hatikka Observation Data Gateway
- GBIF New Zealand: New Zealand National Vegetation Survey Databank
- GBIF-Spain: Botánica, Universidad de León: LEB-Cormo
- GBIF-Spain: Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain: Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium (FBonafè)
- GBIF-Spain: Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- GBIF-Spain: Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain: Real Jardin Botanico (Madrid), Vascular Plant Herbarium (MA)
- GBIF-Spain: Univ. Herbarium SALAMANCA: SALA
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad de Extremadura, UNEX
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- GBIF-Sweden: Botany (UPS)
- GBIF-Sweden: Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN)
- GBIF-Sweden: Lund Botanical Museum (LD)
- GBIF-Sweden: Plants (GBIF-SE:Artdatabanken)
- Herbarium Hamburgense: Impetus - Herbarium Hamburgense
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (AMNH)
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (ICEL)
- IHAR: National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Poland
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS: National System of Proetcted Areas
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences: Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Karl Franzens University of Graz, Insitute for Botany - Herbarium GZU: Herbarium GZU
- Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK): IPK Genebank
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University: Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- National Herbarium of New South Wales: NSW herbarium collection
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo (O)
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo (O)
- Natural History Museum, Vienna - Herbarium W: Herbarium W
- NLBIF: Limnodata
- Oregon State University: Vascular Plant Collection
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO: Herbarium GJO
- SysTax: Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax: Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility: Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular plant data for Scottish Vice-counties (VCs 80, 84, 103 & 104)
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network: East Ayrshire Countryside Ranger Service - East Ayrshire Species Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Lothian Wildlife Information Centre - Lothian Wildlife Information Centre Secret Garden Survey
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- University Museums of Norway (MUSIT)
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics: Herbarium (UNA)
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium (ALA)
- University of Colorado Museum: Zoological specimens
- US National Plant Germplasm System: United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Utah State University: USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3875295
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-41443
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4395043
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:881488-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 103453
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 41443
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMPOA0L010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: AREL3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 20878
- Zhen-lan Wu & Sylvia M. Phillips "Arrhenatherum". in Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 6, 316, 322. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 168.950 meters (554.298 feet), Standard Deviation = 217.710 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]