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Arnica montana

(European Arnica)

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Albanian:


Common Names in Arabic:

زهرة العطاس

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Dağlıq öküzotu

Common Names in Basque:


Common Names in Belarusian:

Купальнік горны

Common Names in Catalan, Valencian:


Common Names in Croatian:

Planinska arnika

Common Names in Czech:

Prha arnika

Common Names in Danish:


Common Names in Dutch:


Common Names in English:

European Arnica, Arnica, Leafy Arnica, Leopards Bane, Leopardsbane, Mountain Arnica, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, Mountain-Tobacco, Sneezewort

Common Names in Estonian:


Common Names in Finnish:


Common Names in French:

Arnica des montagnes, arnica

Common Names in German:

Arnika, Arnika, Berg Wohlverleih

Common Names in Hungarian:

Hegyi árnika

Common Names in Italian:


Common Names in Lithuanian:

Kalninė arnika

Common Names in Norwegian:


Common Names in Norwegian Nynorsk:


Common Names in Persian (Farsi):

تنباکوی کوهی

Common Names in Polish:

Arnika górska

Common Names in Portuguese:


Common Names in Romanian:


Common Names in Russian:

Arnika Gornaja, Barannik, арника горная, баранник

Common Names in Serbian:

Планинска арника

Common Names in Slovene:

Navadna arnika

Common Names in Swedish:


Common Names in Ukrainian:

Арніка гірська

Common Names in Walloon:



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Family Compositae

The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.

Genus Arnica

Perennials , 5-100 cm (rhizomes relatively long and thin; caudices woody, relatively short and thick). Stems erect , simple or branched. Leaves basal (sterile basal rosettes often present) and/or cauline; mostly opposite (usually 1-10 pairs, distalmost sometimes alternate and usually smaller) ; petiolate or sessile; blades mostly cordate, deltate, elliptic , lanceolate, linear , oblanceolate , oblong , obovate , ovate , or spatulate , margins entire or toothed (usually dentate , denticulate , or serrate, sometimes crenate or slightly lobed ), faces glabrous , hirsute , hispidulous , pilose , puberulent , scabrous , tomentose , villous , or woolly , often stipitate-glandular as well. Heads radiate or discoid , borne singly or in cymiform or corymbiform arrays. Involucres campanulate , hemispheric , or turbinate , mostly 6-20+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent , 5-23 in (1-) 2 series. Receptacles convex , smooth or pitted , epaleate. Ray florets 0, or 5-22, pistillate , fertile ; corollas yellow to orange. Disc florets 10-120, usually bisexual and fertile (functionally staminate in A. dealbata) ; corollas usually yellow, rarely cream, tubes shorter than funnelform throats , lobes 5, ± deltate (anthers usually yellow, purple in A. lessingii and A. unalaschcensis). Cypselae (gray or brown to black) ± conic, fusiform , or obovoid-cylindric, nerves 5-10(-20), faces hairy , glandular , or glabrous; pappi usually persistent, of 10-50 white or stramineous to tawny , fine, barbellate or subplumose to plumose bristles (0 in A. dealbata). x = 19.

Species 29: North America, Mexico, Europe, Asia (Japan, Russia).

Arnica is circumboreal , predominantly montane , and exhibits maximum species diversity in western North America. It includes common and very widespread species as well as relatively uncommon, narrow endemics. Polyploidy and apomixis are common in the genus, resulting in considerable morphologic variability. Arnica montana from Europe has been used medicinally for centuries, and unsubstantiated claims have been made regarding the medicinal properties of some North American species.[1]

Physical Description

Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: gold, yellow-orange, yellow


Size: 12-18" tall.


Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,037 meters (0 to 9,964 feet).[2]


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Culture: Space 12-15" apart.

Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)


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Name Status: Accepted Name .

Comment: Data Providers: New Zealand Plant Name Database, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G. GCC LSID: urn

Last scrutiny: 19-Aug-09

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Arnica

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 61 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

A. acaulis (Common Leopardbane) · A. alpina (Alpine Arnica) · A. amplexicaulis (Clasping Arnica) · A. angustifolia (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. angustifolia angustifolia (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. angustifolia iljinii (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. angustifolia tomentosa (Alpine Arnica) · A. angustifolia subsp. tomentosa (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. cernua (Serpentine Arnica) · A. chamissonis (American Arnica) · A. chamissonis chamissonis (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis foliosa (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis genuina (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis genuina var. chamissonis (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis Less. var. andina (Nutt.) Ediger & Barkl. (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis Less. var. interior Maguire (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. andina (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. chamissonis (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. incana (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. interior (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. maguirei (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis subsp. foliosa (Chamisso Arnica) · A. cordifolia (Heart-Leaf Leopardbane) · A. cordifolia whitneyi (Heartleaf Arnica) · A. discoidea (Rayless Arnica) · A. diversifolia (Curtis Churchmouse Threeawn) · A. frigida (Snow Arnica) · A. frigida frigida (Snow Arnica) · A. frigida griscomii (Snow Arnica) · A. frigida subsp. griscomii (Griscom's Arnica) · A. fulgens (Foothill Arnica) · A. gracilis (Smallhead Arnica) · A. griscomii (Griscom's Arnica) · A. griscomii frigida (Snow Leopardbane) · A. lanceolata (Arnica) · A. latifolia (Broadleaf Arnica) · A. lessingii (Lessing's Arnica) · A. lessingii norbergii (Nodding Arnica) · A. lonchophylla (Alpine Arnica) · A. lonchophylla lonchophylla (Longleaf Arnica) · A. lonchophylla subsp. arnoglossa (Seep Arnica) · A. longifolia (Long-Leaf Arnica) · A. louiseana (Lake Louise Arnica) · A. louiseana genuina (Lake Louise Arnica) · A. louiseana griscomi (Lake Louise Arnica) · A. maguirei (Chamisso Arnica) · A. mollis (Hairy Arnica) · A. montana (European Arnica) · A. nevadensis (Nevada Arnica) · A. ovata (Sticky Leaved Arnica) · A. parryi (Nodding Arnica) · A. parryi parryi (Nodding Arnica) · A. parryi sonnei (Nodding Arnica) · A. parryi subsp. sonnei (Sonne's Arnica) · A. rydbergii (Rydberg Arnica) · A. sororia (Twin Arnica) · A. spathulata (Klamath Arnica) · A. unalaschcensis (Alaska Arnica) · A. venosa (Shasta County Arnica) · A. viscosa (Mt. Shasta Arnica) · A. x diversifolia (Rayless Arnica)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:



  1. Steven J. Wolf "Arnica". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 3, 5, 255, 257, 364, 365, 366, 375. Oxford University Press. Online at [back]
  2. Mean = 196.790 meters (645.636 feet), Standard Deviation = 184.580 based on 10,947 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-21