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Common Names in English:
European Arnica, Arnica, Leafy Arnica, Leopards Bane, Leopardsbane, Mountain Arnica, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, Mountain-Tobacco, Sneezewort
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Arnica des montagnes, arnica
Common Names in German:
Arnika, Arnika, Berg Wohlverleih
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
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Common Names in Norwegian Nynorsk:
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Common Names in Russian:
Arnika Gornaja, Barannik, арника горная, баранник
Common Names in Serbian:
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Common Names in Walloon:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, 5-100 cm (rhizomes relatively long and thin; caudices woody, relatively short and thick). Stems erect
or branched. Leaves basal (sterile
basal rosettes often present) and/or cauline; mostly opposite (usually 1-10 pairs, distalmost sometimes alternate and usually smaller) ; petiolate
or sessile; blades
mostly cordate, deltate, elliptic
, lanceolate, linear
, or spatulate
entire or toothed
, or serrate, sometimes crenate or slightly lobed
, or woolly
, often stipitate-glandular
as well. Heads radiate
, borne singly or in cymiform or corymbiform
arrays. Involucres campanulate
, or turbinate
, mostly 6-20+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 5-23 in (1-) 2 series. Receptacles convex
, epaleate. Ray florets 0, or 5-22, pistillate
; corollas yellow to orange. Disc florets 10-120, usually bisexual
and fertile (functionally staminate
in A. dealbata) ; corollas usually yellow, rarely cream, tubes
shorter than funnelform
5, ± deltate (anthers
usually yellow, purple in A. lessingii and A. unalaschcensis). Cypselae (gray or brown to black) ± conic, fusiform
, or obovoid-cylindric, nerves
5-10(-20), faces hairy
, or glabrous; pappi usually persistent, of 10-50 white or stramineous
, fine, barbellate
or subplumose to plumose
(0 in A. dealbata). x = 19.
Species 29: North America, Mexico, Europe, Asia (Japan, Russia).
Arnica is circumboreal , predominantly montane , and exhibits maximum species diversity in western North America. It includes common and very widespread species as well as relatively uncommon, narrow endemics. Polyploidy and apomixis are common in the genus, resulting in considerable morphologic variability. Arnica montana from Europe has been used medicinally for centuries, and unsubstantiated claims have been made regarding the medicinal properties of some North American species.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: gold, yellow-orange, yellow
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,037 meters (0 to 9,964 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Asterales () - Link, 1829
- Superorder: Asteranae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: New Zealand Plant Name Database, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:C22910FB-E527-4AAF-8498-A11D66DD1B4B
Last scrutiny: 19-Aug-09
Members of the genus Arnica
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 61 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. acaulis (Common Leopardbane) · A. alpina (Alpine Arnica) · A. amplexicaulis (Clasping Arnica) · A. angustifolia (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. angustifolia angustifolia (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. angustifolia iljinii (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. angustifolia tomentosa (Alpine Arnica) · A. angustifolia subsp. tomentosa (Narrowleaf Arnica) · A. cernua (Serpentine Arnica) · A. chamissonis (American Arnica) · A. chamissonis chamissonis (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis foliosa (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis genuina (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis genuina var. chamissonis (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis Less. var. andina (Nutt.) Ediger & Barkl. (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis Less. var. interior Maguire (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. andina (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. chamissonis (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. incana (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. interior (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis var. maguirei (Chamisso Arnica) · A. chamissonis subsp. foliosa (Chamisso Arnica) · A. cordifolia (Heart-Leaf Leopardbane) · A. cordifolia whitneyi (Heartleaf Arnica) · A. discoidea (Rayless Arnica) · A. diversifolia (Curtis Churchmouse Threeawn) · A. frigida (Snow Arnica) · A. frigida frigida (Snow Arnica) · A. frigida griscomii (Snow Arnica) · A. frigida subsp. griscomii (Griscom's Arnica) · A. fulgens (Foothill Arnica) · A. gracilis (Smallhead Arnica) · A. griscomii (Griscom's Arnica) · A. griscomii frigida (Snow Leopardbane) · A. lanceolata (Arnica) · A. latifolia (Broadleaf Arnica) · A. lessingii (Lessing's Arnica) · A. lessingii norbergii (Nodding Arnica) · A. lonchophylla (Alpine Arnica) · A. lonchophylla lonchophylla (Longleaf Arnica) · A. lonchophylla subsp. arnoglossa (Seep Arnica) · A. longifolia (Long-Leaf Arnica) · A. louiseana (Lake Louise Arnica) · A. louiseana genuina (Lake Louise Arnica) · A. louiseana griscomi (Lake Louise Arnica) · A. maguirei (Chamisso Arnica) · A. mollis (Hairy Arnica) · A. montana (European Arnica) · A. nevadensis (Nevada Arnica) · A. ovata (Sticky Leaved Arnica) · A. parryi (Nodding Arnica) · A. parryi parryi (Nodding Arnica) · A. parryi sonnei (Nodding Arnica) · A. parryi subsp. sonnei (Sonne's Arnica) · A. rydbergii (Rydberg Arnica) · A. sororia (Twin Arnica) · A. spathulata (Klamath Arnica) · A. unalaschcensis (Alaska Arnica) · A. venosa (Shasta County Arnica) · A. viscosa (Mt. Shasta Arnica) · A. x diversifolia (Rayless Arnica)
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669961
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-7794
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:179003-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 4242
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505925
- IUCN ID: 192720
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARMO8
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21756
- Steven J. Wolf "Arnica". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 3, 5, 255, 257, 364, 365, 366, 375. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 196.790 meters (645.636 feet), Standard Deviation = 184.580 based on 10,947 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]