- The Cherokee applied decoctions made from the roots of Aristolochia macrophylla directly to feet and legs to alleviate swelling; they ingested a compound infusion of "stalk chips" for yellowish urine (D. E. Moerman 1986). [source]
- The leaves of Aristolochia macrophylla are eaten by larvae of the eastern pipe-vine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor philenor (Linnaeus) (W. H. Howe 1975). [source]
- These flowers are difficult to find and photograph because they usually bloom high in the trees , they are under large leaves, and they are a greenish-yellow color.
- These flowers give off an odor that attracts little flies which are temporarily trapped inside the flower. After pollen is released on the insects the flower opens again and the flies go on to another flower to pollinate it. Watch for the spiky black and red Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillars on the leaves, their food source.
- The family name Birthwort alludes to the fact that the flower looks like a fetus (if you really use your imagination!). People once believed that plants that look like a body part could be used to treat diseases or problems with that body part, this practice was called the "Doctorine of Signatures". This plant was used to aid in childbirth (don't try this at home!).
Common Names in English:
Broadleafed Birthwort, Dutchman´s-Pipe, Dutchman's Pipe, Dutchman's-Pipe, Dutchmans Pipe, Pipevine
, rarely lianas, subshrubs
, or trees
, stems, and leaves with oil cells
. Leaves alternate; stipules absent; petiole
usually present and well defined; leaf blade
, usually pinnately veined, sometimes palmately 3-5-veined, margin
usually entire, rarely 3-5-lobed. Inflorescences terminal
, cymes, or corymbs, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, zygomorphic or actinomorphic
. Perianth usually with 1 petaloid
whorl (in Saruma with 2 whorls: outer one sepaloid
, inner one petaloid), mostly connate
or subglobose; limb rotate, urceolate
, cylindric, or ligulate
, 1-3-lobed; lobes
. Stamens 6-12 (in China), in 1 or 2 series; filaments
to ovary (in Asarum) or style column (in Thottea) with anthers
, or filaments and anthers fully adnate to style column to form gynostemium
(in Aristolochia) ; anthers 2-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal
. Ovary inferior to superior, 6-loculed (in Thottea 4-loculed) ; carpels connate only at base
or fully fused; ovules numerous
, usually in 1 or 2 series; placentation parietal
. Styles free or connate, column 3- or 6-lobed (in Thottea 5-20-lobed) . Fruit a fleshy
or dry capsule, rarely siliquiform or follicular
. Seeds many; testa somewhat hard or crustaceous
; endosperm copious
, fleshy; embryo minute.
About eight genera and 450 600 species: primarily in tropical and subtropical regions; four genera (one endemic) and 86 species (69 endemic) in China.
Herbs or lianas, perennial
. Stems erect
, or procumbent
. Leaves alternate, 2-ranked (evident on young growth, becoming obscure
with age in some species) ; true stipules absent; pseudostipules absent [present]; petiole
sometimes very short. Leaf blade
membranous to leathery. Inflorescences on new growth or on older stems, axillary
or solitary flowers; bracts present. Flowers: calyx usually mixture of purple, brown, green, or red, bilaterally symmetric
, usually bent or curved
, 1- or 3-lobed, not fleshy
with utricle (basal, inflated
portion of calyx surrounding or containing gynostemium
) ; tube
narrowed, sometimes extended proximally as cylindric
(tubular or ringlike structure at juncture of tube and utricle, projecting
into utricle cavity) and distally as annulus (circular flange
at juncture of tube and limb) on limb; corolla absent; stamens 5-6, adnate
to styles and stigmas, forming gynostemium; ovary inferior, 3-, 5-, or 6-locular; styles 3, 5, or 6, connate
in column. Capsule dry, dehiscent
. Seeds flattened or rounded
, sometimes winged
= 6, 7, 8.
Species ca. 300: nearly worldwide.
Most European and tropical species of Aristolochia are believed to be pollinated by small flies attracted to the flowers by the fetid odors and purple-brown color. Flies enter the flower when the stigmas are receptive and are trapped until after the anthers dehisce (H. Solereder 1889, 1889b). No formal studies of pollination of the North American species have been reported.
Many species of Aristolochia have been used in the treatment of snakebite; the treatment may or may not be effective. All species contain aristolochic acid , which is variously reported as tumor-causing or tumor-inhibiting (J. A. Duke 1985).
The leaves of many species are eaten by pipe-vine swallowtail butterflies. The larvae eat leaves of these species and sequester aristolochic acid in their bodies, making them unpalatable to birds (W. H. Howe 1975).
Species Aristolochia macrophylla
, to 20 m
, woody. Young stem ribbed
4-6 cm. Leaf blade
, 7-34 × 10-35 cm, base
depth 1-4.5 cm, apex obtuse
to acute or acuminate;
surfaces abaxially glabrous to slightly puberulent
Inflorescences on new growth, axillary
, solitary flowers; peduncle
, 3-7 cm; bracteoles reniform, to 15 mm.
with red-brown, strongly curved
; utricle pendent,
, 0.5-1.5 × 0.8-1 cm; syrinx
curved or bent and angled
upward, cylindric, 1-3 × 0.3-0.5
cm; annulus smooth
; limb yellow to brown, 3-lobed, lobes
1.5-2 cm, glabrous; gynostemium
3-lobed, globose to crown-shaped,
4 mm; anthers
6; ovary 3-locular, 3-7 cm. Capsule ovoid
6-8 × 4-10 cm, dehiscence basipetal; valves
6; septa entire,
not attached to valves. Seeds * flat, triangular, 1 × 1 cm.
2 n = 28. [source]
Aristolochia macrophylla has possibly escaped from cultivation in Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Vermont; these are not documented. [source]
The name Aristolochia durior Hill has been misapplied to this species. [source]
ID Features: Superposed buds that are grouped in 3's. Buds are greenish and smooth. Simple, deciduous leaves. Twining vine. Unusual flower.
Habit: A vigorous, deciduous twining vine .
Flowers: Unique flower shape . Hidden and small, pipe shape. Blooms in May. Yellowish in color. • Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: bronze, brown, inconspicuous, none
Seeds: Fruit: Capsule. 2" to 3" long. Brown.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , deciduous leaves. 4" to 10" long with an equal width . Leaves are heart-shaped. Entire leaf margins. Pubescent underside. Medium green leaf color. • Fall foliage: Not ornamentally important.
Growth Rate: Fast. • Size: 20' to 30' long
Forests , often on dissected uplands and rugged, rocky slopes ; Cumberland and Blue Ridge mountains; 50-1300 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,617 meters (0 to 5,305 feet).
Culture: Prefers moist, well-drained soil. Full sun to partial shade. Needs support .
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Dumortier, 1829
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Dutchman's-pipe [Greek aristolocheia, birthwort, from aristos, best, and lochia, delivery, in reference to ancient use of herb as aid in childbirth]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.
- Specific epithet: macrophylla - Lam.
- Genus: Aristolochia () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Dutchman's-pipe [Greek aristolocheia, birthwort, from aristos, best, and lochia, delivery, in reference to ancient use of herb as aid in childbirth]
- Tribe: Aristolochieae ()
- Subfamily: Aristolochioideae ()
- Family: Aristolochiaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - birthworts
- Order: Piperales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Magnolianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Aristolochia durior Hill • Aristolochia sipho L'Hé • Isotrema macrophyllum (Lam.) C. F. Reed
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Aristolochia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 40 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. anguicida (Harlequin Dutchman's Pipe) · A. baetica (Birthwort) · A. bilabiata (West Indian Dutchman's Pipe) · A. bilobata (Twolobe Dutchman's Pipe) · A. brasiliensis (Aristolochia) · A. californica (California Dutchman's Pipe) · A. chilensis (Oreja De Zorro) · A. clematitis (Birthwort) · A. contorta (Dutchmans Pipe) · A. cordifolia (Heartleaf Dutchman's Pipe) · A. coryi (Cory's Dutchman's Pipe) · A. cymbifera (Mil-Homens) · A. elegans (Calico Flower) · A. erecta (Dutchman's Pipe) · A. fimbriata (White Veined Dutchmans Pipe) · A. gigantea (Calico Flower) · A. gigantea 'Brasiliensis' (Dutchmans Pipe) · A. grandiflora (Calico Flower) · A. indica (Indian Birthwort) · A. labiata (Mottled Dutchman's Pipe) · A. leuconeura (Aristolochia) · A. littoralis (Calico Flower) · A. macrophylla (Broadleafed Birthwort) · A. manshuriensis (Birthwort) · A. maxima (Florida Dutchman's Pipe) · A. odoratissima (Fragrant Dutchman's Pipe) · A. pearcei (Scrambling Dutchmans Pipe) · A. peltata (Peltate Dutchman's Pipe) · A. pentandra (Marsh's Dutchman's Pipe) · A. peruviana (Aristolochia) · A. pilosa (Pipevine) · A. reticulata (Texas Dutchman's Pipe) · A. ringens (Dutchman's Pipe) · A. sempervirens (Dutchmans Pipe) · A. serpentaria (Black Snakeroot) · A. tomentosa (Common Dutchmanspipe) · A. trilobata (Bejuco De Santiago) · A. watsonii (Indian Root) · A. wrightii (Wright's Dutchman's Pipe) · A. 'Guimaraes' (Dutchmans Pipe)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645236
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18336
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:93102-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 406868
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18336
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 93102-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDARI010B0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ISMA4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22693
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill "Aristolochiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 246. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Kerry Barringer "Aristolochia". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Aristolochia macrophylla". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 509.180 meters (1,670.538 feet), Standard Deviation = 266.530 based on 169 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]