Common Names in English:
White Veined Dutchmans Pipe
, rarely lianas, subshrubs
, or trees
, stems, and leaves with oil cells
. Leaves alternate; stipules absent; petiole
usually present and well defined; leaf blade
, usually pinnately veined, sometimes palmately 3-5-veined, margin
usually entire, rarely 3-5-lobed. Inflorescences terminal
, cymes, or corymbs, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, zygomorphic or actinomorphic
. Perianth usually with 1 petaloid
whorl (in Saruma with 2 whorls: outer one sepaloid
, inner one petaloid), mostly connate
or subglobose; limb rotate, urceolate
, cylindric, or ligulate
, 1-3-lobed; lobes
. Stamens 6-12 (in China), in 1 or 2 series; filaments
to ovary (in Asarum) or style column (in Thottea) with anthers
, or filaments and anthers fully adnate to style column to form gynostemium
(in Aristolochia) ; anthers 2-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal
. Ovary inferior to superior, 6-loculed (in Thottea 4-loculed) ; carpels connate only at base
or fully fused; ovules numerous
, usually in 1 or 2 series; placentation parietal
. Styles free or connate, column 3- or 6-lobed (in Thottea 5-20-lobed) . Fruit a fleshy
or dry capsule, rarely siliquiform or follicular
. Seeds many; testa somewhat hard or crustaceous
; endosperm copious
, fleshy; embryo minute.
About eight genera and 450 600 species: primarily in tropical and subtropical regions; four genera (one endemic) and 86 species (69 endemic) in China.
Herbs or lianas, perennial
. Stems erect
, or procumbent
. Leaves alternate, 2-ranked (evident on young growth, becoming obscure
with age in some species) ; true stipules absent; pseudostipules absent [present]; petiole
sometimes very short. Leaf blade
membranous to leathery. Inflorescences on new growth or on older stems, axillary
or solitary flowers; bracts present. Flowers: calyx usually mixture of purple, brown, green, or red, bilaterally symmetric
, usually bent or curved
, 1- or 3-lobed, not fleshy
with utricle (basal, inflated
portion of calyx surrounding or containing gynostemium
) ; tube
narrowed, sometimes extended proximally as cylindric
(tubular or ringlike structure at juncture of tube and utricle, projecting
into utricle cavity) and distally as annulus (circular flange
at juncture of tube and limb) on limb; corolla absent; stamens 5-6, adnate
to styles and stigmas, forming gynostemium; ovary inferior, 3-, 5-, or 6-locular; styles 3, 5, or 6, connate
in column. Capsule dry, dehiscent
. Seeds flattened or rounded
, sometimes winged
= 6, 7, 8.
Species ca. 300: nearly worldwide.
Most European and tropical species of Aristolochia are believed to be pollinated by small flies attracted to the flowers by the fetid odors and purple-brown color. Flies enter the flower when the stigmas are receptive and are trapped until after the anthers dehisce (H. Solereder 1889, 1889b). No formal studies of pollination of the North American species have been reported.
Many species of Aristolochia have been used in the treatment of snakebite; the treatment may or may not be effective. All species contain aristolochic acid , which is variously reported as tumor-causing or tumor-inhibiting (J. A. Duke 1985).
The leaves of many species are eaten by pipe-vine swallowtail butterflies. The larvae eat leaves of these species and sequester aristolochic acid in their bodies, making them unpalatable to birds (W. H. Howe 1975).
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: maroon, near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Dumortier, 1829
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Dutchman's-pipe [Greek aristolocheia, birthwort, from aristos, best, and lochia, delivery, in reference to ancient use of herb as aid in childbirth]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Aristolochia fimbriata Cham.
- Specific epithet: fimbriata - Cham.
- Genus: Aristolochia () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Dutchman's-pipe [Greek aristolocheia, birthwort, from aristos, best, and lochia, delivery, in reference to ancient use of herb as aid in childbirth]
- Tribe: Aristolochieae ()
- Subfamily: Aristolochioideae ()
- Family: Aristolochiaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - birthworts
- Order: Piperales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Magnolianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Cham. Publication
: Linnaea 7: 210, t. 6 1832
An accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Aristolochia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 40 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. anguicida (Harlequin Dutchman's Pipe) · A. baetica (Birthwort) · A. bilabiata (West Indian Dutchman's Pipe) · A. bilobata (Twolobe Dutchman's Pipe) · A. brasiliensis (Aristolochia) · A. californica (California Dutchman's Pipe) · A. chilensis (Oreja De Zorro) · A. clematitis (Birthwort) · A. contorta (Dutchmans Pipe) · A. cordifolia (Heartleaf Dutchman's Pipe) · A. coryi (Cory's Dutchman's Pipe) · A. cymbifera (Mil-Homens) · A. elegans (Calico Flower) · A. erecta (Dutchman's Pipe) · A. fimbriata (White Veined Dutchmans Pipe) · A. gigantea (Calico Flower) · A. gigantea 'Brasiliensis' (Dutchmans Pipe) · A. grandiflora (Calico Flower) · A. indica (Indian Birthwort) · A. labiata (Mottled Dutchman's Pipe) · A. leuconeura (Aristolochia) · A. littoralis (Calico Flower) · A. macrophylla (Broadleafed Birthwort) · A. manshuriensis (Birthwort) · A. maxima (Florida Dutchman's Pipe) · A. odoratissima (Fragrant Dutchman's Pipe) · A. pearcei (Scrambling Dutchmans Pipe) · A. peltata (Peltate Dutchman's Pipe) · A. pentandra (Marsh's Dutchman's Pipe) · A. peruviana (Aristolochia) · A. pilosa (Pipevine) · A. reticulata (Texas Dutchman's Pipe) · A. ringens (Dutchman's Pipe) · A. sempervirens (Dutchmans Pipe) · A. serpentaria (Black Snakeroot) · A. tomentosa (Common Dutchmanspipe) · A. trilobata (Bejuco De Santiago) · A. watsonii (Indian Root) · A. wrightii (Wright's Dutchman's Pipe) · A. 'Guimaraes' (Dutchmans Pipe)
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- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 96.
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- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 394.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 370.
- Cheng Ching-yung, Yang Chun-shu & Hwang Shu-mei. 1988. Aristolochiaceae. In: Kiu Hua-shing & Ling Yeou-ruenn, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 24: 159245.
- Pfeifer, H. W. 1966. Revision of the North and Central American hexandrous species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 1-114.
- Pfeifer, H. W. 1970. A Taxonomic Revision of the Pentandrous Species of Aristolochia. [Storrs.]
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3495169
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15059029
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:92931-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 92931-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 719422
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill "Aristolochiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 246. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Kerry Barringer "Aristolochia". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]