- Flowers are either male or female; plants can change "gender" from one year to the next, depending on the health of the plant (it requires more energy to produce fruits than pollen). Female plants usually have 2 leaves, males 1 leaf. "Black Jacks" have dark maroon stripes on the pulpit (spathe ) and on "Jack" (spadix).
- These plants are sometimes called "Indian Turnip" because the roots were once eaten by the Native Americans. This is not recommended though, the roots contain large amounts of oxalic acid crystals which can make the tongue swell severely. The roots had to be boiled again and again to remove the chemical.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Devils Nip, Indian Jack in the Pulpit, Indian Turnip, Indian-Turnip, Jack in the Pulpit, Jack in the Pulpit, Jack-In-The-Pulpit, Swamp Jack-In-The-Pulpit
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Navajo, Navaho:
Common Names in Quechua:
, wetland or terrestrial
, occasionally emergent or floating, [often epiphytic or climbing
], usually with milky
or watery latex, rarely colored
. Rhizomes, corms, or stolons present; rhizomes vertical
or horizontal, creeping at or near surface
, sometimes branched; corms underground, starchy; stolons at or near surface. Stems absent [sometimes aboveground or aerial
]. Cataphylls usually present. Leaves rarely solitary, alternate or clustered; petiole
rarely absent, with sheathing
, occasionally sagittate-cordate, larger than 1.5 cm; venation
parallel or pinnate- or palmate-netted. Inflorescences spadices, each with 3--900 usually tightly grouped, sessile flowers, subtended by spathe
; spathe rarely absent, persistent
(sometimes only proximally) or deciduous, variously colored; spadix cylindric
, various parts occasionally naked or with sterile
flowers. Flowers bisexual
usually on same plants
or functionally on different plants, staminate flowers
distal to pistillate when unisexual; perianth absent or present; stamens 2--12, distinct
in synandria; ovaryies 1, 1--3(--many) -locular, sessile or embedded
in spadix; styles 1; stigmas hemispheric
, capitate, or discoid
[sometimes strongly lobed
]. Fruits berries
, distinct or connate at maturity. Seeds 1--40(--many) per berry.
Genera 105, species more than 3300 (8 genera, 10 species in the flora ; species in 10 additional genera may persist locally within flora area, see talbe 203.1) : nearly worldwide, primarily tropical regions .
Araceae are best characterized by the inflorescence, a fleshy cylindric or ovoid, unbranched spadix subtended or surrounded by a spathe. True spathes are absent in the Nearctic genus Orontium and in the Australian genus Gymnostachys. Other plant families with a compressed spadix-like inflorescence, such as Piperaceae and Cyclanthaceae, either do not have a structure equivalent to a spathe (Piperaceae) or have early-deciduous bracts (Cyclanthaceae) . Plants are usually glabrous , rarely pubescent or spiny (pubescent in Pistia) . Many Araceae exhibit typical monocotyledonous parallel leaf venation, but some genera have net leaf venation more typical of dicotyledons.
Infrafamilial classification of the Araceae is under active study. The only classification of the family to date to utilize modern phylogenetic techniques (S. J. Mayo et al. 1997) recognizes seven subfamilies, of which three are represented in native temperate North American aroid flora: Orontioideae (Orontium, Symplocarpus, Lysichiton) ; Calloideae (Calla) ; and Aroideae (Peltandra, Arisaema, and Pistia) . Acorus, a genus historically included in Araceae, is treated as a separate family in theat flora based on extensive morphologic and chemical evidence that supports its removal from Arales (M. H. Grayum 1987) .
The number of genera of Araceae occurring in temperate North America is low in comparison with other continents, and primitive taxa are disproportionately represented. Orontioideae and Calloideae, which include four of the seven native genera found in the flora area, are the basal clades within Araceae. Plants in these subfamilies possess the primitive states for many characteristics in Araceae and share few derived characteristics with other aroid genera (M. H. Grayum 1990) . The more advanced genera native to the flora area include one genus endemic to eastern North America (Peltandra), a pantropical genus with an uncertain native distribution (Pistia), and a genus clearly Eurasian in origin (Arisaema) .
Araceae contain crystals of calcium oxalate , which are often cited as causing the intense irritation experienced when handling or consuming the raw plant tissue of many genera in the family. This supposition is contradicted by the fact that although irritation generally is not produced by properly cooked plants, the crystals remain after heating. Other compounds must therefore be involved with causing this reaction. Studies of Dieffenbachia demonstrated that a proteolytic enzyme , as well as other compounds, are responsible for the severe irritation caused by this plant and that raphides of calcium oxalate do not play a major role (J. Arditti and E. Rodriguez 1982) . Whether irritation is caused by enzymes or crystals, that aspect of Araceae has resulted in aroid genera being included in many lists of poisonous plants (e.g. , K . F. Lampe and M. A. McCann 1985; G. A. Mulligan and D. B . Munro 1990; K. D. Perkins and W. W. Payne 1978) .
Despite the toxic effects of Araceae, species of several genera are cultivated as food plants, mainly as subsistence crops in tropical areas. The major edible Araceae are Colocasia esculenta and several species of Xanthosoma, grown primarily for their corms and sometimes for their leaves. Most North American species of Araceae were historically used by Native Americans, as both food and medicine (T. Plowman 1969) . The family, is currently more valued for its many ornamental species , and is the most important family in North America for indoor foliage plants (T. B. Croat 1994) . Araceae commonly grown as ornamentals in American homes include species of Aglaonema (Chinese-evergreen), Anthurium, Caladium, Dieffenbachia (dumbcane), Epipremnum (golden pothos), Philodendron, Spathiphyllum, Syngonium, and Zantedeschia (calla-lily) .
Plants of some cultivated species of Araceae escape and may persist or naturalize , especially in warmer climates. One of these species, Colocasia esculenta, is widespread enough to warrant full inclusion in the flora, but other introduced species of Araceae are very local in occurrence. Uncommon species represented by herbarium specimens or literature reports as escaped or persisting from cultivation are listed (table 203.1) with distinguishing characteristics and areas of occurrence.
or wetland. Corms [rhizomes] nearly globose
. Leaves usually appearing with flowers, 1--2(--3), erect
; blade medium to dark green, sometimes glaucous adaxially, palmately or pedately [radiately] divided
, not peltate, leaflet
to broadly ovate
or attenuate, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate; primary
veins of each leaflet pinnate. Inflorescences: peduncle erect, nearly equal to leaves [to very short], apex not swollen; spathe
or striped, distal part open at maturity, exposing tip
to 1/2 or more of spadix appendage
; spadix ± cylindric
, surmounted by sterile
appendage of variable shape
. Flowers unisexual
on same or different spadix; pistillate flowers congested
; staminate flowers
, distal to pistillate flowers when both are present; perianth absent. Fruits not embedded
in spadix, glossy orange to bright red. Seeds 1--6, mucilage sometimes present (not present in Arisaema triphyllum). x
= 13, 14.
Species ca. 170: mostly temperate Asia, also North America, Mexico, and Africa.
The phenomenon of sex changing in Arisaema has been investigated by many authors (e.g. , P. Bierzychudek 1982; K . Clay 1993; E. Kinoshita 1986). Smaller plants produce only staminate flowers, and larger plants produce either staminate and pistillate flowers simultaneously or pistillate flowers only. Changes in gender expression are directly correlated with size and are also influenced by the environment in which the plants are growing. Reversions in phenotypic gender have been experimentally induced by such factors as removing leaf area or changing soil nutrient levels.
Although some species are cultivated as ornamentals , the genus is not of great economic importance.
Species Arisaema triphyllum
Although these morphological forms may be recognizable in the field
distinguishing these differences in herbarium
specimens is often
difficult, and there is much overlap occurs in expression of the
characteristics supposedly defining infraspecific
intermediate forms exist, including putative hybrid populations be
tween the subspecies
with 2n = 42 (D. G. Huttleston 1949, 1953).
Given these problems and the sympatric ranges
of the "subspecies"
recognized by previous workers, A. triphyllum is treated here as
one highly variable species. [source]
In addition to the above variability within the Arisaema triphyllum complex , putative hybrid populations between A. triphyllum and A. dracontium also occur naturally (L. L. Sanders and C. J. Burk 1992). These plants do not produce mature fruits but do reproduce vegetatively. [source]
Habit: Forb/herb • Growth Form: Rhizomatous • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: black, dark purple, green, maroon, pale green • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 110000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Low • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Dense • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: None • Mature Height (feet): 1.5 • Size: 12-18" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: Yes • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8 • Fertility Requirement: High
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 34 • Maximum Precipitation: 50 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -18 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 175 • Cold Hardiness: 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Br. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, 1820
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- Arum Family
- Subfamily: Aroideae ()
- Family: Araceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Arum Family
- Order: Alismatales () - R. Br. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, 1820
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967 - Monocots
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A. atrorubens (Aiton) Blume • A. polymorphum (Buckley) Chapman • A. pusillum (Peck) Nash • A. quinatum (Nuttall) Schott • A. stewardsonii Britton • A. triphyllum pusillum (Peck) Huttleston • A. triphyllum quinatum (Nuttall) Huttleston • A. triphyllum stewardsonii (Britton) Huttleston • A. triphyllum var. pusillum Peck • A. triphyllum var. stewardsonii (Britton) Stevens Ex Wiegand and Eames • Alocasia atrorubens (Aiton) Raf. • Alocasia lobata Raf. • Alocasia triphylla (L.) Raf. • Arisaema acuminatum Small • Arisaema atrorubens (Aiton) Blume • Arisaema atrorubens f. pallascens (Sims) Raymond • Arisaema atrorubens f. pusillum (Peck) Fernald • Arisaema atrorubens f. viride (Engl.) Fernald • Arisaema atrorubens f. zebrinum (Sims) Fernald • Arisaema atrorubens var. viride Engl. • Arisaema atrorubens var. zebrinum (Sims) Raymond • Arisaema brasilianum Blume • Arisaema deflexum Nieuwl. and K. Just • Arisaema hastatum Blume • Arisaema polymorphum (Buckley) Chapm. • Arisaema pusillum f. pallidum Eames • Arisaema pusillum Nash • Arisaema quinatum (Nutt.) Schott • Arisaema quinatum var. obtusoquinatum Alph. Wood • Arisaema stewardsonii Britton • Arisaema triphyllum bispadiceum Engl. • Arisaema triphyllum bispathaceum Engl. • Arisaema triphyllum f. pusillum (Peck) Fernald • Arisaema triphyllum f. stewardsonii (Britton) Engl. • Arisaema triphyllum f. viride (Engl.) Farw. • Arisaema triphyllum f. zebrinum (Sims) F. Seym. • Arisaema triphyllum pusillum (Peck) Huttl. • Arisaema triphyllum quinatum (Nutt.) Nutt. • Arisaema triphyllum stewardsonii (Britton) Huttl. • Arisaema triphyllum trispadiceum Engl. • Arisaema triphyllum var. acuminatum (Small) Engl. • Arisaema triphyllum var. montanum Fernald • Arisaema triphyllum var. pusillum Peck • Arisaema triphyllum var. stewardsonii (Britton) Stevens • Arisaema triphyllum var. typicum Engl. • Arisaema triphyllum var. viride (Engl.) Engl. • Arisaema zebrinum G. Nicholson • Arum atrorubens Aiton • Arum polymorphum Buckley • Arum quinatum Nutt. • Arum triphyllum L. • Arum triphyllum var. atropurpureum Michx. • Arum triphyllum var. atrorubens (Aiton) Dewey Ex Alph. Wood • Arum triphyllum var. pallescens Sims • Arum triphyllum var. virens Michx. • Arum triphyllum var. viride Sims • Arum triphyllum var. zebrinum Sims • Arum vittatum Salisb.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003
Members of the genus Arisaema
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 56 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. amurense (Asian Green Dragon) · A. amurense 'Green Form' (Asian Green Dragon) · A. asperatum (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. auriculatum (Cobra Lily) · A. bathycoleum (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. brevipes (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. candidissimum (Chinese Jack-In-The-Pulpit) · A. candidissimum 'White Flower Form' (Chinese Jack-In-The-Pulpit) · A. ciliatum (Arisaema) · A. clavatum (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. concinnum 'Yellow Spathe Form' (Chinese Cobra Lily) · A. consanguineum (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. costatum (Cobra Lily) · A. dahaiense (Cobra Lily) · A. dilatatum (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. dracontium (Green Dragon) · A. elephas (Cobra Lily) · A. erubescens (Arisaema) · A. fargesii (Arisaema) · A. flavum (Arisaema Flavum) · A. franchetianum (Chinese Cobra Lily) · A. griffithii (Griffiths Cobra Lily) · A. heterophyllum (Arisaema) · A. inkiangense (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. inkiangense var. maculatum (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. iyoanum (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. japonicum (Japanese Arisaema) · A. jinshajiangense (Arisaema) · A. kelung-insularis (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. lichiangense (Cobra Lily) · A. lingyunense (Arisaema) · A. lobatum (Arisaema) · A. nepenthoides (Cobra Lily) · A. peninsulae (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. prazeri (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. propinquum (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. rhizomatum (Cobra Lily) · A. ringens (Cobra Lily) · A. saxatile (Arisaema) · A. serratum var. mayebarae (Jack-In-The-Pulpit) · A. shihmienense (Jack In The Pulpit) · A. sikokianum (Cobra Lily) · A. speciosum (Cobra Lily) · A. taiwanense (Taiwan Cobra Lily) · A. thunbergii urashima (Urashima-So) · A. tortuosum (Arisaema) · A. triphyllum (Devils Nip) · A. triphyllum pusillum (Indian Jack in the Pulpit) · A. triphyllum quinatum (Indian Jack in the Pulpit) · A. triphyllum stewardsonii (Indian Jack in the Pulpit) · A. triphyllum triphyllum (Indian Jack in the Pulpit) · A. wardii (Arisaema) · A. wilsonii (Jack in the Pulpit) · A. yamatense (Jack-In-The-Pulpit) · A. yamatense sugimotoi (Jack-In-The-Pulpit) · A. yunnanense (Cobra Lily)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A biological survey of the sand dune region on the south shore of Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Lansing, Mich.: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford co., state printers, 1911. url p. 321, p. 84.
- A botanical survey of the Sugar Grove region / by Robert F. Griggs. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 269, p. 309.
- A catalogue of the flowering plants and higher cryptogams, both native and introduced, found within about thirty miles of Hanover, N. H., including a few cultivated species, to which is appended a list of vertebrate animals of the same region. By Henry Jesup. [Hanover?]Printed for the Author, 1891. url p. 47.
- A college text-book of Botany, being an enlargement of the author's "Elementary Botany." New York, Holt, 1905. url p. 103, p. 345, p. 662, p. 725.
- A college text-book of botany: being an enlargement of the author's "Elementary botany, " / by George Francis Atkinson. New York: Henry Holt and Company1905. url p. 103, p. 345, p. 662, p. 725.
- A college text-book of botany; being an enlargement of the author's "Elementary botany." New York: Holt, 1908 [c1905] url p. 103, p. 345, p. 442, p. 662, p. 725.
- A contribution to the knowledge of the flora of southeastern Minnesota. [Boston, Heliotype Print. Co.]1900. url p. 377.
- A guide to the poisonous plants and weed seeds of Canada and the northern United States / by R.B. Thomson and H.B. Sifton. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1922. url p. 15, p. 161.
- A guide to the wild flowers Toronto: McLelland, Goodchild & Steward, c1899. url .
- A guide to the wild flowers east of the Mississippi and north of Virginia / by Norman Taylor. New York: Greenberg, 1928. url p. 11.
- A guide to the wild flowers, by Alice Lounsberry. With sixty-four coloured and one hundred black-and-white plates and fifty-four diagrams by Mrs. Ellis Rowan; with an introduction by Dr. N.L. Britton... New York, Frederick A. Stokes company url p. 466.
- A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations, Cedar Rapids, Ia., The Torch Press, 1911. url , .
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L. H. Pammel. 1911 Cedar Rapids, Ia.: The Torch Press, 1910-11. url fig. 159, p. 372.
- A manual of the medical botany of North America, by Laurence Johnson. New York, Wood, 1884. url p. 263.
- A naturalist in the Great Lakes region, by Elliot Rowland Downing. .. Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago Press[c1922] url , , , p. 208, p. 320.
- A preliminary list of Maine fungi, by Percy LeRoy Ricker. .. Orono, Me., 1902. url p. 54.
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W. G. Farlow and A. B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 142.
- A provisional list of the parasitic fungi of Wisconsin. Madison, 1914 url p. 924.
- A spring flora for high schools, New York, Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company[c1915] url .
- A spring flora for high schools, by Henry C. Cowles. .. and John G. Coulter. .. New York, American book company[c1915] url p. 14, p. 33.
- A survey of natural areas in Tyrrell County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url p. 7.
- A university text-book of botany. New York, Macmillan, 1910. url p. 388.
- Algae of the western Great Lakes area, with an illustrated key to the genera of desmids and freshwater diatoms. Dubuque, Iowa, W. C. Brown Co. url p. 289, p. 965.
- American forests. Washington [etc.]American Forestry Association [etc.] url p. 289.
- American medicinal plants;: an illustrated and descriptive guide to the American plants used as homopathic remedies: their history, preparation, chemistry, and physiological effects. / By Charles F. Millspaugh, . ..; Illustrated by the author. New York; Boericke & Tafel., c1887. url .
- American spiders and their spinningwork. A natural history of the orbweaving spiders of the United States, with special regard to their industry and habits. By Henry C. McCook. [Philadelphia]author, Academy of natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1889-93. url p. 218.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 442.
- An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language, by George T. Stevens. .. with more than 1800 illustrations from drawings by the author. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1910. url p. 111.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 111, p. 660.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 201.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 105, p. 71.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 11, p. 76.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 5 1894 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 126, p. 166, p. 167, p. 171, p. 171, p. 173, p. 177, p. 180, p. 192, p. 198, p. 204, p. 244, p. 258.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 515.
- Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1897- url p. 149, p. 360, p. 49, p. 527.
- Annual report of the Director to the Board of Trustees for the year. .. / Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, U.S.A.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1907-1943. url p. 233.
- Annual report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904. url p. 58.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 314.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 255, p. 255.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 144, p. 273.
- Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan. .. Lansing: The Board, 1862- url p. 173.
- Annual report of the Trustees of the State Museum of Natural History for the year. .. Albany, N.Y.: The Trustees, 1886-1889. url p. 55, p. 55.
- Annual report of the regents of the university on the condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History, with catalogues of the same. Albany, Regents of the University. url p. 58.
- Annual report of the secretary of the State Horticultural Society of Michigan. Lansing: The Society, 1881- url p. 458.
- Annual report on the New York State Museum of Natural History. Albany, Regents of the University of the State of New York. url p. 18, p. 74, p. 77.
- Aquatic life. Philadelphia: J.E. Bausman. url p. 152.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 62 2004 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 119, p. 3, p. 31, p. 33, p. 68, p. 69, p. 73, p. 75, p. 8.
- Biological effects of radiation; mechanism and measurement of radiation, applications in biology, photochemical reactions, effects of radiant energy on organisms and organic products. Edited by Benjamin M. Duggar. With the cooperation of Janet Howell Clark, Kenneth S. Cole, Farrington Daniels [and others] New York andMcGraw-Hill Book Co., 1936. url p. 728.
- Blossom hosts and insect guests; how the heath family, the bluets, the figworts, the orchids and similar wild flowers welcome the bee, the fly, the wasp, the moth and other faithful insects, by William Hamilton Gibson; ed. by Eleanor E. Davie; illustrated by the author. New York, Newson[c1901] url p. 171.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 273.
- Botany for agricultural students, by John N. Martin. New York, John Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1919. url p. 568, p. 568.
- Botany for agricultural students. New York, Wiley, 1919. url p. 568.
- Botany for high schhools / by George Francis Atkinson. New York: H. Holt, 1912. url p. 178, p. 528.
- Botany for high schools, by George Francis Atkinson. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1910. url p. 164, p. 480.
- Botany for secondary schools; a guide to the knowledge of the vegetation of the neighborhood, by L. H. Bailey. New York, Macmillan, 1920. url p. 327.
- Botany with agricultural applications. New York, Wiley, 1920. url p. 586.
- Botany, with agricultural applications, New York, John Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1920. url .
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1912 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 236, p. 828, p. 858, p. 860.
- Brooklyn Botanic Garden record. 22 1933 [Brooklyn]: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1912-44. url p. 11, p. 17, p. 7.
- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 15, p. 16.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 10, p. 135, p. 20, p. 240, p. 76.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 117, p. 185.
- Bulletin / Illinois Natural History Survey. Urbana, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1918-1985. url p. 145.
- Bulletin / New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. [New Brunswick, N.J.]: The Station, 1880- url p. 204.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 139, p. 269, p. 275, p. 309, p. 451.
- Bulletin / Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1971. url p. 112, p. 124, p. 126, p. 127, p. 129, p. 173, p. 203, p. 223, p. 59, p. 606, p. 85, p. 904.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 12, p. 13, p. 69, p. 71, p. 74.
- Bulletin of the Charleston Museum. [Charleston, S.C.: the Museum], 1907-1922. url , p. 61.
- Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Salem, Mass., Essex Institute. url p. 153.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 1 1898 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 139, p. 197, p. 212, p. 289.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 29 1902 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url , p. 106, p. 135, p. 145, p. 188, p. 2, p. 229, p. 230, p. 231, p. 232, p. 234, p. 242, p. 247, p. 248, p. 249, p. 281, p. 324, p. 369, p. 37, p. 38, p. 39, p. 391, p. 40, p. 417, p. 42, p. 43, p. 44, p. 448, p. 46, p. 47, p. 48, p. 49, p. 50, p. 513, p. 54, p. 64, p. 647, p. 659, p. 661, p. 665, p. 698, p. 708, p. 92.
- Bulletin of the scientific laboratories of Denison University. Granville, Ohio: [The University], 1885- url p. 88.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url p. 12, p. 39, p. 71, p. 74.
- Bulletins of American paleontology. 23 1935 Ithaca, N.Y., Paleontological Research Institution [etc.] url p. 130.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url , p. 19.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 139.
- Catalogue of local botanical and palæontological specimens prepared by the Hamilton Association, 1896-97. S.l.: s.n., 1897? url .
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 129, p. 50.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 50.
- Catalogue of the flora of Oak Island, Revere, Massachusetts. With notes. Salem [Mass.]Peabody Academy of Science, 1883. url p. 15.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 109.
- Catalogue of the phanerogams and ferns of Licking County, Ohio. Granville, Ohio, Press of Granville Times, 1892. url .
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory and the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: [s.n., url .
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url , p. 37, p. 38, p. 48, p. 54.
- Contributions from the Osborn Botanical Laboratory. [New Haven?]Osborn Botanical Laboratory, Yale University, url p. 242, p. 398.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 21 1919 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 113, p. 425, p. 520, p. 553.
- Cultures of Uredineae 1899-1921. n.p., n.d. url p. 319.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 94.
- Elementary botany Toronto: Copp, Clark, [1899?] url .
- Elementary botany. New York, H. Holt, 1899. url , , .
- Elementary botany. New York, Holt, 1908. url p. 257, p. 311, p. 349, p. 360, p. 437.
- Elementary botany. New York: H. Holt, [c1905] url , .
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 12, p. 20, p. 27, p. 39, p. 52, p. 83, p. 85, p. 91.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 29.
- Facts relating to the history of Groton, Massachusetts, by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 20.
- Field Museum of Natural History bulletin. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, -c1990. url p. 10, p. 16.
- Fieldbook of Illinois wild flowers; six hundred fifty of the more common flowering plants in the state. Urbana, 1936. url p. 40.
- Flora Peoriana; the vegetation in the climate of middle Illinois. Peoria, Ill., J. W. Franks & Sons, 1887. url , p. 59.
- Flora of Ann Arbor and vicinity. Ann Arbor, [Mich.]: Courier Steam Print. House, 1876. url p. 107.
- Flora of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Boston, Printed for the Society, 1922. url , , p. 187, p. 236.
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 563, p. 60.
- Flora of Bermuda... by Nathaniel Lord Britton... New York, Scribner, 1918. url p. 60.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 73.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url , p. 1136, p. 278, p. 279.
- Flora of Lancaster County; being descriptions of the seed- plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvanial. By John Kunkel Small and Joel Jackson Carter. New York, 1913. url p. 65.
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the conifers and flowering plants of the state, with keys for their determination. Lincoln, Neb., Printed by State Printing Co., 1912 url p. 15.
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the ferns, conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb., 1923 url p. 25.
- Flora of New Bedford and the shores of Buzzards Bay, with a procession of the flowers. New Bedford [Mass.]E. Anthony, 1911. url p. 22.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 72.
- Flora of Winneshiek County. Des Moines: 1906. url .
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 113.
- Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District, by Donald Culross Peattie. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 104, p. 105, p. 5.
- Flora of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland / Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Biological Survey,  url p. 7.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 226, p. 226.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 212.
- Florida wild flowers; an introduction to the flora of the Florida peninsula, by Mary Francis Baker, photographs by the author. New York, The Macmillan company, 1926. url p. 31.
- Flowers and ferns in their haunts, by Mabel Osgood Wright with illustrations from photographs by the author and J. Horace McFarland. London, The Macmillan company, 1901. url p. 457.
- Flowers and insects; lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty-three flowers, by Charles Robertson. Carlinville, Ill., n.p.1928. url p. 28.
- Flowers of field, hill, and swamp; New York, Harper & Brothers, 1899. url .
- Forest conditions of Mississippi. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 140, p. 164.
- Forest leaves. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Forestry Association, 1886-1950. url .
- Fourteen weeks in botany: being an illustrated flora / by Alsphonso Wood and J. Dorman Steele. New York: A.S. Barnes & Company, c1879. url p. 230.
- Fundamentals of botany / by C. Stuart Gager. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., c1916. url p. 624.
- Fundamentals of botany, by C. Stuart Gager. With 435 illustrations. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston, 1916. url p. 624.
- Fundamentals of botany. Philadelphia, Blakiston url p. 624.
- General botany for universities and colleges, by Hiram D. Densmore with original illustrations by the author and by M. Louise Sawyer. Boston, Ginn and Company, [c1920] url p. 425.
- Gray's Botanical text-book New York, Ivison, 1879-1885. url p. 61.
- Gray's Botanical text-book. New York: American Book Company, c1879. url p. 61.
- Guide for laboratory practice in plant morphology, [Ithaca, N. Y.]Pub. by the Author, 1894. url .
- Guide to the Economic Museum of the New York Botanical Garden. New York, 1921. url p. 212, p. 289.
- Hand-list of tender momocotyledons, excluding Orchideae, cultivated in the Royal Gardens, Kew. London, Printed for H. M. S. O., by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1897. url p. 307.
- Hand-list of tender monocotyledons, excluding Orchideae, cultivated in the Royal Gardens, Kew. 1897. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off. by Eyre and Spottiswoode1897 url p. 307.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 310, p. 333, p. 344.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url , , .
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Hardy perennials and old-fashioned garden flowers. Describing the most desirable plants for borders, rockcries, and shrubberies, and including both foliage and flowering plants. By John Wood. London, L.U. Gill, 1884. url p. 313, p. 314, p. 319.
- Harper's guide to wild flowers, by Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey. New York, Harper, 1912. url p. 371, p. 520.
- How to know the wild flowers: a guide to the names, haunts, and habits of our common wild flowers / by Mrs. William Starr Dana [i.e. F.T.S.D. Parsons]; illustrated by Marion Satterlee and Elsie Louise Shaw. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. url p. 333.
- How to know wild fruits; a guide to plants when not in flower by means of fruit and leaf; by Mary Elisabeth Herbert. New York, Macmillan, 1914. url , p. 5.
- How to make a country place; an account of the successes and the mistakes of an amateur in thirty-five years of farming, building and development: together with a practical plan for securing a home and an independent income, star New York, Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.]1914. url p. 369.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 162, p. 176.
- Illinois wild flowers, by John Voss and Virginia S. Eifert. Springfield,  url p. 70.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 337, p. 60, p. 606.
- Introduction to botany / by William Chase Stevens. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1902. url p. 18, p. 219, p. 219, p. 429, p. 429.
- Introduction to botany, Boston, D. C. Heath & Co., 1902. url .
- Iowa parks. Conservation of Iowa historic, scenic and scientific areas. Also, a description of numerous areas suitable for public state parks, with reasons for their preservation. Report of the State board of con Pub. by the state of Iowa. Des Moines url p. 167.
- Iowa parks. Des Moines url p. 167.
- Journal and proceedings of the Hamilton Association. [Hamilton, Ont.]: Printed for the Hamilton Association by the Spector Printing Co., -1899. url p. 119.
- Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America 1823-1827, together with a particular description of thirty-three species of American oaks and eighteen species of Pinus, with appendices containing a list of the plants introduced by Douglas and an account of h London, W. Wesley & Son, 1914. url , p. 15, p. 17.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 30 1892 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 316.
- Journal of morphology. Boston: Ginn & Co., [1887-1924] url p. 317.
- Journal of mycology. Manhattan, Kan.: [s.n.], 1885-1908. url p. 269, p. 72.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 129, p. 129, p. 170.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 62.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 3 1902 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url , p. 141, p. 200, p. 26, p. 285, p. 316, p. 324, p. 50, p. 67, p. 80, p. 91.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 198.
- Lake Maxinkuckee. A physical and biological survey by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. [Indianapolis]Dept. of Conservation, State of Indiana [Wm. B. Burford, printer]1920. url p. 253.
- Lake Maxinkuckee. a physical and biological survey by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. [Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford, printer]1920. url p. 253.
- Lake Maxinkuckee: a physical and biological survey / by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. Indianapolis: Dept. of Conservation, 1920. url p. 253.
- Landscape garden series, ed. by Ralph Rodney Root. Davenport, Ia.: The Garden Press,  url p. 28.
- Lessons in botany. New York, H. Holt and company, 1900. url , , p. 243, p. 244.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 102.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , p. 102, p. 112, p. 122, p. 85.
- Living plants and their properties; a collection of essays, by Joseph Charles Arthur and Daniel Trembly Macdougal. New York, Baker and Taylor, 1898. url p. 129, p. 134, p. 229.
- Manual of the Flora of Jackson County, Missouri, By Kenneth K. MacKenzie, assisted by B. F. Bush and others. Kansas City, Mo., s.n., 1902 url p. 54.
- Manual of the flora of Jackson County, Missouri, by Kenneth K. Mackenzie, assisted by B. F. Bush and others. Kansas City, Mo., 1902. url .
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 1067, p. 229.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 246.
- Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1900- url p. 212, p. 221, p. 316, p. 50, p. 59, p. 65, p. 66, p. 69.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 16 1915 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 1, p. 10, p. 102, p. 12, p. 14, p. 15, p. 16, p. 18, p. 2, p. 20, p. 22, p. 24, p. 26, p. 28, p. 30, p. 31, p. 32, p. 34, p. 36, p. 38, p. 4, p. 40, p. 44, p. 46, p. 48, p. 50, p. 52, p. 54, p. 6, p. 8, p. 9.
- Methods in plant histology, by Charles J. Chamberlain. Chicago, University of Chicago Press[1933, c1932] url p. 268.
- Methods in plant histology; by Charles J. Chamberlain. .. Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago Press[c1915] url p. 204.
- Michigan flora: a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation / prepared by W.J. Beal. [Lansing, Mich.]: State Board of Agriculture: 1904. url p. 18, p. 18, p. 58, p. 58.
- Minnesota botanical studies. Minneapolis, Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. url , , p. 377, p. 377, p. 576, p. 576, p. 749.
- Miscellaneous papers on the botany of Michigan, by C. K. Dodge. Prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Published as a part of the Annual report of the Board of Geological Survey for 1920. Lansing, Mich., Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, State Printers, 1921. url p. 141, p. 90.
- Miscellaneous publications / University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Ann Arbor, Mich.: The University, 1916- url p. 15.
- Morphology of angiosperms (Morphology of spermatophytes, Part II) by John Merle Coulter and Charles James [!] Chamberlain. New York, Appleton & Co., 1903. url p. 326, p. 68.
- Morphology of angiosperms: (Morphology of spermatophytes, Part II) / by John Merle Coulter and Charles Joseph Chamberlain. New York: D. Appleton, 1909, c1903. url p. 326, p. 66.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 71.
- National Arboretum contribution. Washington, D.C.: The Arboretum: 1953- url p. 12.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 35.
- Natural area inventory of Hyde County, North Carolina / [Raleigh]: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 1982. url p. 150.
- Natural area inventory of Pamlico County, North Carolina / [Raleigh]: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 1982. url p. 37, p. 39, p. 45.
- Natural area inventory of Pender County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url p. 127, p. 151, p. 154, p. 39.
- Natural area inventory of Washington County, North Carolina / [Raleigh]: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 1982. url p. 165.
- Natural areas inventory of Carteret County, North Carolina: for the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / [Raleigh]: N.C. Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, . url p. 234.
- Natural areas inventory, Gates County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development,  url p. 127, p. 148, p. 200, p. 86.
- Nature's garden: With many color illustrations. Garden City, N. Y., : Garden City Pub. Co., [c1900] url .
- Nature's garden: an aid to knowledge of our wild flowers and their insect visitors / text by Neltje Blanchan; with colored plates and many other illustratins potographed directly form nature by Henry Troth and A. R. Dugmore. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1900. url p. 367, p. 401.
- Nature's garden; an aid to knowledge of our wild flowers and their insect visitors. With colored plates and many other illus. photographed directly from nature by Henry Troth and A. R. Dugmore. Text by Neltje Blanchan [pseud.] 1922 Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1922. url p. 367, index of scientific names, page 401, plate 74.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 11, p. 114, p. 83.
- Notes on the geology and botany of Digby Neck by L. W. Bailey. S.l.: s.n., 1895? url .
- Observations on the flowering plants, ferns and fern allies growing wild in Marquette County, Michigan, in 1916 and 1917, especially in the vicinity of the Huron Mountain Club. Ann Arbor, Michigan, Published by the University, 1918. url .
- Our early wild flowers: a study of the herbaceous plants blooming in early spring in the northern states / by Harriet L. Keeler. Illustrated by Mary Keffer and Eloise P. Luquer. New York: Scribner, 1916. url p. 247.
- Part I. The living flora of West Virginia, by C. F. Millspaugh. Part II. The fossil flora of West Virginia, by David White. Wheeling, Wheeling news litho. co., 1913 url p. 79.
- Pharmaceutical botany, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1914] url , .
- Pharmaceutical botany, with glossary of botanical terms. Philadelphia, Blakiston url p. 443.
- Phytogeography of Nebraska. 1. General survey by Roscoe Pound and Frederic E. Clements. Lincoln, Neb.Published by the Seminar1900 url p. 126, p. 181, p. 333, p. 419, p. 73.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 167, p. 581.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 116, p. 131, p. 16, p. 361, p. 363, p. 49, p. 50, p. 67, p. 76.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 425.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 425.
- Plant physiology; a textbook for colleges and universities, by Bernard S. Meyer. .. and Donald B. Anderson. .. New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, inc., 1939. url p. 140.
- Plants of Iowa; a preliminary list of the native and introduced plants of the state, not under cultivation; comp. by Wesley Greene, secretary. Des Moines, Bishard brothers, printers, 1907. url p. 56, p. 56, p. 61, p. 61.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 107, p. 41.
- Plantsman. Durham, N.H.: New Hampshire Plant Growers' Association, url p. 17, p. 25, p. 7.
- Pleasure with plants. Urbana, 1942. url p. 32.
- Poisonous plants of Canada / [Ottawa]: Agriculture Canada, 1990. url p. 14, p. 51, p. 87, p. 88, p. 93.
- Poisonous plants of the Midwest / [Urbana]: Dept. of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois, 1983. url p. 9.
- Potter's cyclopaedia of botanical drugs and preparations / by R.C. Wren. London: Potter & Clarke,  url p. 293, p. ix.
- Potter's cyclopedia of botanical drugs and preparations / by R. C. Wren. London: Potter & Clarke, [1900-1950?]. url p. 162, p. ix.
- Practical botany, structural and systematic, the latter portion being an analytical key to the wild flowering plants, trees, shrubs, ordinary herbs, sedges and grasses of the northern and middle United States east of the Mississippi, by August Koehler. ... New York, H. Holt and Company, 1876. url p. 398.
- Practical guide to the wild flowers and fruits, by George Lincoln Walton... Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott company, 1909. url p. 13, p. 168.
- Practical text-book of plant physiology. New York, Longmans, 1908. url p. 139, p. 230.
- Principal poisonous plants of Canada / by Faith Fyles. Ottawa: Dept. of Agriculture, Dominion Experimental Farms, 1920. url p. 18, p. 18.
- Proceedings - Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. url p. 147.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 146, p. 146, p. 315.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 1005, p. 1009, p. 126, p. 999.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 386.
- Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, Ind.[s.n.] url p. 162, p. 162, p. 180, p. 180, p. 190, p. 202, p. 202, p. 219, p. 219, p. 3, p. 3, p. 39, p. 39, p. 467, p. 51, p. 51, p. 54.
- Proceedings. Halifax url p. 381, p. 440, p. 81.
- Proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award to the state of New York for a Hudson River estuarine sanctuary. Albany, N.Y.: New York, Dept. of Environmental Conservation,  url p. 130.
- Report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904-1916. url p. 152.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url , , , , p. 10, p. 10, p. 20.
- Reports of the Survey. Botanical series. Minneapolis [etc.]1892- url p. 377, p. 576, p. 666, p. 667.
- Residential sites and environments; their conveniences, gardens, parks, planting, etc. New York, A.T. Delamare Print. and Pub. Co., 1898. url p. 79.
- Rock River area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, Natural History Survey Division, in conjunction with State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, IL: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1996- url p. 123, p. 51.
- Roosevelt wild life bulletin. .. of the Roosevelt Life Forest Experiment Station of the New York College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, N.Y.: The University, c1922- url p. 284.
- Rust infection of leaves in petri dishes / [New Haven]: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1924. url p. 499.
- School and home gardens, Boston, Ginn and Co.[c1913] url .
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 116, p. 202, p. 619, p. 789.
- Scientific and applied pharmacognosy, intended for the use of students in pharmacy, as a hand book for pharmacists, and as a reference book for food and drug analysts and pharmacologists. New York, Wiley, 1920. url p. 73.
- Shade gardens / by Oliver E. Allen and the editors of Time-Life Books. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, c1979. url p. 92.
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 226.
- South Carolina. Resources and population. Institutions and industries. Pub. by the State Board of Agriculture of South Carolina. Charleston, S.C.: Walker, Evans & Cogswell, printers, 1883. url p. 342.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 75.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 209, p. 251, p. 517.
- Station bulletin. Durham, N.H.: Agricultural Experiment Station, University of New Hampshire, 1948- url p. 7.
- Structural botany, or Organography on the basis of morphology. To which is added the principles of taxonomy and phytography, and a glossary of botanical terms. By Asa Gray. Chicago, Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and company,  url .
- Structural botany, or, Organography on the basis of morphology. To which is added the principles of taxonomy and phytography, and a glossary of botanical terms. By Asa Gray. New York: American Book Compnay,  url p. 61.
- Structural botany: or, organography on the basis of morphology: to which is added the principles of taxonomy and phytography, and a glossary of botanical terms / by Asa Gray. London: Macmillan and Co., [c1879] url p. 61.
- Studies in natural history. Iowa City, Ia. url p. 18, p. 41.
- Studies of plant life in Canada. Wild flowers, flowering shrubs, and grasses. Toronto: William Briggs, 1906. url .
- Studies of the vegetation of Missouri. .. / By Julian A. Steyermark. 9 1940 [Chicago, 1940- url p. 444.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 17, p. 17, p. 25, p. 50, p. 51, p. 54, p. 7, p. 8.
- Textbook of evolution and genetics, by Arthur Ward Lindsey. .. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1929. url p. 336, p. 446.
- The American botanist: a monthly journal for the plant lover. Binghamton, N.Y.: Willard N. Clute & Co., 1901-1948. url p. 8, p. 82.
- The American journal of anatomy. Baltimore, MD: [s.n.], 1902-1991. url p. 129.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url , p. 125, p. 237, p. 266, p. 42, p. 43, p. 44, p. 45, p. 46, p. 47.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 55 1941 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url stroud , title page, index , p. 103, p. 112, p. 129, p. 144, p. 144, p. 179, p. 226, p. 43, p. 48, p. 52, p. 73.
- The Canadian journal of science, literature and history. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1868-1878. url p. 49.
- The Canadian naturalist and geologist. Montreal: B. Dawson, 1856-1868. url p. 132.
- The Canadian record of science. Montreal: Natural History Society, 1884-1916. url .
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 766, p. 834, p. 906, p. 974.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 3.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 274.
- The Journal of pharmacology. New York: Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, 1897- url p. 208.
- The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Cincinnati: The Society, 1878/79 [i.e. 1878 or 1879]-1945. url p. 231.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley: a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River / by Conway MacMillan. Minneapolis: Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 1892. url p. 666, p. 667.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota valley; a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota river. Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892 url p. 666, p. 667.
- The Natural history of the Toronto Region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. -- Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url .
- The North American cup-fungi (inoperculates) New York, 1951. url p. 375, p. 386, p. 60.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 149, p. 154, p. 18, p. 190, p. 196, p. 197, p. 215, p. 244, p. 343, p. 500, p. 57.
- The Ottawa naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url , p. 153, p. 153.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 106, p. 348.
- The Proceedings and transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Halifax, Nova Scotian Institute of Science. url p. 440, p. 81.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 48 1969 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 543, p. 552, p. 885.
- The bacteriology of diphtheria, including sections on the history, epidemiology and pathology of the disease, the mortality caused by it, the toxins and antitoxins and the serum disease, by F. Loeffler, Arthur Newsholme, F. B. Mallory, G. S. Graham-Smith, George Dean, William H. Park, Charles F. Bolduan. Ed. by G. H. F. Nuttall and G. S. Graham-Smith Cambridge [Eng.]University Press, 1913 url p. 263.
- The bionomics of blister beetles of the genus Meloe and a classification of the New World species Urbana, University of Illinois Press url p. 21, p. 214, p. 85.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 279, p. 382.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 152, p. 154.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 99.
- The constitution and by-laws of the Ann Arbor Scientific Association with the proceedings for the year ending May 1, 1876.. ... Ann Arbor, Courier Steam Printing House, 1876. url p. 107.
- The differential analysis of starches, by James B. McNair. 9 1930 Chicago, 1930. url p. 13, p. 15, p. 21, p. 26, p. 30, p. 34, p. 37, p. 40, p. 43.
- The differentiation and specificity of starches in relation to genera, species, etc.; stereochemistry applied to protoplasmic processes and products, and as a strictly scientific basis for the classification of plants and animals Washington, D.C.Carnegie institution of Washington1913 url p. 10.
- The drug plants of Illinois / Leo R. Tehon; drawings by Kay H. Wadsworth. Urbana, Ill.: Natural History Survey Division, 1951. url p. 123, p. 25.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
- The flora of North Carolina from Ranunculaceae to Salviniaceae / C.W. Hyams. Raleigh, N.C.: The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1899. url p. 341.
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 53.
- The flora of the metamorphic region of Alabama / by F.S. Earle. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1902. url p. 62.
- The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island, and Gardiner's Island / New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1914? url p. 235.
- The garden's story: or, Pleasures and trials of an amateur gardener / by George H. Ellwanger. .. New York: Appleton, 1891. url p. 339.
- The geology of New Hampshire A report comprising the results of explorations ordered by the legislature. C. H. Hitchcock, state geologist Concord, E. A. Jenks, state printer, 1874-1878 url p. 407, p. 407.
- The geology of New Hampshire. A report comprising the results of explorations ordered by the legislature. Concord, E.A. Jenks, state printer, 1874-78. url .
- The geology of New Hampshire: a report comprising the results of explorations ordered by the legislature / C. H. Hitchcock, state geologist. Concord: E. A. Jenks, state printer, 1874-1878. url p. 407.
- The green Algae of North America, [by Frank S. Collins] Tufts College, Mass., 1909. url p. 408.
- The green Algae of North America, by Frank Shipley Collins. Tufts College, Mass., 1909. url p. 408.
- The influence of light and darkness upon growth and development. New York1903 url , p. 50, p. 52, p. 66, p. 70.
- The island of Nantucket: what it was and what it is: being a complete index and guide to this noted resort: containing descriptions of everything on or about the island in regard to which the visitor or resident may desire Boston: C.T. Dillingham, c1882. url p. 45.
- The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry. New York, Interscience Publishers, 1951-57. url p. 376.
- The native flora of the vicinity of Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., New York. n.p., 1925 url p. 134.
- The natural history and topography of Groton, Massachusetts / by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 20.
- The natural history of Chautauqua. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1917. url p. 52.
- The natural history of the Toronto region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 108.
- The orchids in the Ottawa District: floristics, phytogeography, population studies and historical review / Joyce M. Reddoch and Allan H. Reddoch. 111 1997 Ottawa, Canada: The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club,  url p. 103, p. 144, p. 48, p. 52.
- The parasitic fungi of New Jersey / by Carl A. Schwarze. New Brunswick: New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1917. url p. 204.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 229, p. 241, p. 413.
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 8.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url .
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 86.
- The preservation and management of vegetation in ravines in Highland Park, Illinois: a report / prepared by Kenneth R. Robertson and E. B. Himelick of the Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois. Urbana: The Survey, 1977. url p. 19, p. 9.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1473.
- The vascular flora of the eastern Penobscot Bay region, Maine. [Portland, Maine, 1919. url p. 226.
- The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine-Barrens: an ecologic investigation / by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia: Christopher Sower Company, 1916. url p. 142.
- Through glade and mead; a contribution to local natural history, by Joseph Jackson; illustrations from photographs by J. C. Lyford. .. Worcester, Mass., Putnam, Davis and company, 1894. url p. 142.
- Timber and botany. comprising seven reports on the forests and botany of different parts of the state / Geological Survey of Kentucky. [S.l.]: The Survey, 1884. url p. 56.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 104, p. 109, p. 116, p. 118, p. 118, p. 121, p. 124, p. 130, p. 133, p. 133, p. 137, p. 143, p. 149, p. 153, p. 157, p. 159, p. 165, p. 174, p. 179, p. 188, p. 189, p. 193, p. 207, p. 213, p. 229, p. 235, p. 248, p. 256, p. 26, p. 26, p. 286, p. 47, p. 57, p. 67, p. 73, p. 78, p. 95.
- Transactions - Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 57.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url .
- Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science. Springfield, Ill., Illinois State Academy of Science [etc.] url p. 102, p. 166, p. 176, p. 69.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 148, p. 173, p. 184, p. 196, p. 47, p. 64, p. 68, p. 69, p. 71.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 166.
- Transactions of the Tennessee Academy of Science. Nashville, Williams printing company[1914-17] url p. 82.
- Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. [Madison]Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 1870/72- url p. 141.
- University studies of the University of Nebraska. Lincoln. url p. 12.
- Useful wild plants of the United States and Canada, by Charles Francis Saunders. Illustrated with photographs by the author and with drawings by Lucy Hamilton Aring. New York, R. M. McBride & company, 1934. url , p. 259, p. 37, p. 38.
- Uses of plants by the Indians of the Missouri River region / by Melvin Randolph Gilmore Washington, Govt. print. off., 1919. url p. 149, p. 49.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 15.
- Who's who among the wild flowers / compiled and illustrated by W. I. Beecroft; with an introd. by Frances Duncan. New York: Moffat, Yard, 1910. url p. 326, p. 345.
- Who's who among the wild flowers; comp. and illustrated by W. I. Beecroft, with an introduction by Frances Duncan. New York, Moffat, Yard and company, 1910. url p. 345.
- Wild flower families; the haunts, characters, and family relationships of the herbaceous wild flowers, with suggestions for their identification, by Clarence M. Weed. .. with 83 illustrations. and London: J.B. Lippincott company, 1908. url p. 240.
- Wild flowers east of the Rockies / by Chester A. Reed. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1910. url p. 24.
- Wild flowers east of the Rockies. Worcester, Mass., Reed, 1910. url p. 24.
- Wild flowers every child should know: arranged according to color with reliable descriptions of the more common species of the United States and Canada / by Frederic William Stack. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1909. url p. 3, p. 396.
- Wild flowers of New York, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1918. url p. 325.
- Wild flowers; New York, Macmillan Co., 1934. url , , .
- Wild plants needing protection. New York, New York Botanical Garden, 1912- url .
- [Report of a voyage made to the Canadian Labrador coast; Catalogue of plants and birds of the north shore] [D. N. Saint-Cyr]. Québec?: s.n., 1887? url .
- Bown, D. 1988. Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family. Portland.
- Grayum, M. H. 1990. Evolution and phylogeny of the Araceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 628--697.
- Lampe, K. F. and M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago.
- Mayo, S. J., J. Bogner, and P. C. Boyce. 1997. The Genera of Araceae. 1 vol. + laser disc. [London.]
- Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1990. Poisonous Plants of Canada. Ottawa, Canada.
- Perkins, K. D. and W. W. Payne. 1978. Guide to the Poisonous and Irritant Plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida.
- Plowman, T. 1969. Folk uses of New World aroids. Econ. Bot. 23: 97--122.
- Thompson, S. A. 1995. Systematics and Biology of the Araceae and Acoraceae of Temperate North America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Illinois. Add Urbana-Champaign.
- Wilson, K. A. 1960. The genera of the Arales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 41: 47--72.
- Huttleston, D. G. 1953. A Taxonomic Study of the Temperate North American Araceae. Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University.
- Murata, J. 1990. Present status of Arisaema systematics. Bot. Mag. 103: 371--382.
- Treiber, M. 1980. Biosystematics of the Arisaema triphyllum Complex. Ph.D. dissertation. University of North Carolina.
- "Arisaema triphyllum". in Flora of North America Vol. 22 Page 140. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 04, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 4 providers.
- Light, Kris. East Tennessee Wildflowers
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Jan 19, 2007.
- USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Plant Characteristics Database. Accessed April 17, 2006.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 26, 2008)
- World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Release date: November 27, 2009
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 04, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad: Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México (IE-XAL)
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics: Herbarium (UNA)
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662247
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-15737
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:299360-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 4018
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42525
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 1107169-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMARA04040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARTR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22320
- Sue A. Thompson "Araceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Arisaema". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 242.950 meters (797.080 feet), Standard Deviation = 173.670 based on 1,549 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]