This coarse vine nicely represents the features typical in the family .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Elephant Creeper, Baby Wood-Rose, Elephant-Climber, Elephant-Creeper, Elephant-Vine, Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Silver Elephant Creeper, Silver-Morning-Glory, Wood-Rose, Woodrose, Woolly Morning Glory, Woolly Morning-Glory, Woolly-Morning-Glory
Common Names in Hindi:
Samandar-Ka-Pat, Samudrasos, समदर۔का۔पट, समुनदा॒सोस
Common Names in Spanish:
Hojas De Seda
Herbs or shrubs
, usually with twining
stems or erect
, often with milky
juice. Leaves alternate, simple
, entire, dissected
, or compound
, absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary
or in cymes, racemes
, panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual
, usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free
, often persistent
, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous
, or urceolate
; limb subentire
or deeply lobed
. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes
to corolla; filaments
, equal or unequal in length
, laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth
or finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal
in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous
, smooth or pubescent
About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.
Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.
The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .
Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.
For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.
or lianas. Stems woody. Leaves petiolate
, entire, sometimes silvery sericeous
abaxially. Inflorescences axillary
, rarely terminal
, in cymes, or loose
capitula, few to many flowered; bracts persistent
or early deciduous, small or large. Sepals persistent, herbaceous or ± leathery, pubescent
and often red adaxially, ± enlarged and reflexed
in fruit. Corolla purple, red, pink, or white, campanulate
, or tubular
; limb subentire
to deeply 5-lobed, with 5 distinct
, mostly pubescent midpetaline bands
. Stamens inserted
of corolla, included
or exserted; filaments
, base dilated, often pubescent or glandular
; pollen globular
, finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular, margin
entire or shallowly 5-lobed. Ovary 2- or 4-loculed, 4-ovuled, pubescent or glabrous. Style 1, filiform, included or exserted; stigma capitate, 2-lobed or 2-globular. Berry red, purplish, orange, or yellowish, globose
, or leathery. Seeds 4 or fewer, rarely pilose
About 90 species: mainly tropical Asia, with one species in Australia (Queensland) ; 22 species in China.
No monograph of Argyreia exists, and the mainland Asian species have not been studied for a contemporary flora or regional revision . A comparison of the Chinese material with those from regions to the south reveals that a profusion of names has developed for what appears to be a significantly smaller number of taxa. It was not possible to sort out the nomenclature for the species involved due to the lack of access to type material and the exceedingly complex literature dealing with Argyreia. Therefore, a conservative approach is taken, and nearly all of the taxa described from China are maintained, and possible conspecific taxa are pointed out. The flowers of Argyreia marlipoensis are unknown. It has not been possible to place the species in a key that relies heavily on floral characters. One cultivated species, A. nervosa, is included in the key but not treated further.
Habit: Vine , Forb/herb, Subshrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: blooms repeatedly • Flower Color: medium blue
Size: 30-40' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 618 meters (0 to 2,028 feet).
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 6.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Solanales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Argyreia speciosa (L. F.) Sweet • Convolvulus nervosus Burm. F. • Convolvulus speciosus L. F. • Lettsomia Nervosa • Lettsomia nervosa (Burm. F.) Roxb. • Rivea nervosa (Burm. F.) Hallier F.
Members of the genus Argyreia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A flora of Manila / Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1912, 1974 printing. url .
- A flora of Manila, by E. D. Merrill. Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1912. url p. 386.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 371.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 12.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 51 2005 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 160, p. 197, p. 407, p. 418, p. 449, p. 497.
- Familiar Indian flowers: with coloured plates / Bombay: Published for the author by L. Reeve and Co.;  url p. 88.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 494.
- Root-knot and its control. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 12.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 264.
- The Monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture. Sacramento, Calif.: The Commission, 1911-1919. url p. 752.
- The Philippine journal of science. 19 1921 Manila. url p. 375.
- Fang Rhui-cheng & Huang Shu-hua in Wu Cheng-yih, ed. 1979. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(1): 1-153.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653853
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30824
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13745295
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:265238-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3968
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30824
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 265238-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCON02010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARNE4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22565
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Argyreia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 313. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 286.670 meters (940.518 feet), Standard Deviation = 269.180 based on 12 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]