, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
[or rarely herbs]. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate
, usually punctate
or punctate-lineate. Inflorescences paniculate
, or umbellate
, rarely racemose. Flowers bisexual
, often punctate, 5- or rarely 4-merous. Calyx campanulate
or cupular; sepals free
or barely united
, imbricate or quincuncial, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Corolla campanulate, often punctate; lobes
united at base, overlapping to right
or very rarely to left, imbricate, or quincuncial, often conical
in bud. Stamens attached at base or middle
of corolla tube
very short, broad at base; anthers
dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores
. Ovary ovoid
or subglobose, as long as or longer
than petals; ovules 3 to many. Style base persistent; stigma minute, apiculate
. Fruit drupaceous
, 1-seeded, punctate, sometimes longitudinally ribbed
, with somewhat fleshy
and crusty or slightly bony endocarp. Seeds covered by membranous remnants of placenta.
About 400-500 species: primarily tropical E and SE Asia, Americas, Australia, and Pacific Islands; 65 species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Order: Ericales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Wall. & A.DC. Publication : Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17(1): 122, descr. 1834 [1837 publ. 26 Apr-8 May 1834]
Members of the genus Ardisia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. crenata (Coral Ardisia) · A. crispa (Ardisia) · A. densilepidotula (Jun-Aug) · A. elliptica (Shoe-Button Ardisia) · A. escallonioides (Marlberry) · A. escallonoides (Island Marlberry) · A. glauciflora (Ausubon) · A. japonica (Japanese Ardisia) · A. japonica 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Marlberry) · A. lateriflora (Quiebrahacha) · A. luquillensis (Mountain Marlberry) · A. obovata (Guadeloupe Marlberry) · A. opaca (Mala Sombra) · A. pulverulenta (Blossomberry Grape) · A. revoluta (Ardisia) · A. solanacea (Jet Berry) · A. standleyana (Frutita De Paloma) · A. subsessilifolia (Hoja Lisa) · A. wallichii (Ardisia)
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- A general history of the dichlamydeous plants, comprising complete descriptions of the different orders; together with the characters of the genera and species, and an enumeration of the cultivated varieties. .. the scientific names accentuated, t By George Don. London, J.G. and F. Rivington [etc.]1831-38. url p. 16.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 309, p. 421, p. 496.
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 418.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 64.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 527.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- Chen Feng-hwai, Hu Chi-ming, Fang Yun-yi, Cheng Chao-zong, Yang Yong-chang & Huang Rong-fu In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (1). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(1): 1-217
- Hu Chi-ming In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (2). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(2): 1-321.
- Chen Chieh. 1979. Myrsinaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 58: 1-147.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9146118
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 587513-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3897441
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]