Common Names in English:
, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
[or rarely herbs]. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate
, usually punctate
or punctate-lineate. Inflorescences paniculate
, or umbellate
, rarely racemose. Flowers bisexual
, often punctate, 5- or rarely 4-merous. Calyx campanulate
or cupular; sepals free
or barely united
, imbricate or quincuncial, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Corolla campanulate, often punctate; lobes
united at base, overlapping to right
or very rarely to left, imbricate, or quincuncial, often conical
in bud. Stamens attached at base or middle
of corolla tube
very short, broad at base; anthers
dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores
. Ovary ovoid
or subglobose, as long as or longer
than petals; ovules 3 to many. Style base persistent; stigma minute, apiculate
. Fruit drupaceous
, 1-seeded, punctate, sometimes longitudinally ribbed
, with somewhat fleshy
and crusty or slightly bony endocarp. Seeds covered by membranous remnants of placenta.
About 400-500 species: primarily tropical E and SE Asia, Americas, Australia, and Pacific Islands; 65 species in China.
Species Ardisia solanacea
Shrubs or trees to 6 m tall, glabrous . Branchlets prominently angular, 5-7 mm in diam. Petiole canaliculate , 1-2 cm; leaf blade elliptic or oblanceolate , 12-20 × 4-7 cm, papery , conspicuously black punctate and punctate-lineate abaxially, not prominently punctate adaxially, base cuneate or narrowly decurrent on petiole, margin subrevolute, entire, apex acute; lateral veins ca. 20 on each side of midrib , raised on both surfaces, marginal vein absent. Inflorescences at bases of new shoots , paniculate with racemose or rarely corymbose branches, 3-8 cm. Flowers leathery, pink, ca. 1 cm. Sepals broadly ovate to reniform , ca. 3 mm, densely black punctate, base subauriculate, margin subentire or crenulate , ciliate , scarious , apex rounded . Petals nearly free ; lobes broadly ovate, ca. 9 mm, punctate, margin entire, hyaline , apex obtuse or acute. Stamens subequalling petals; filaments ca. 1/4 anther length ; anthers linear-lanceolate, densely punctate dorsally , longitudinally dehiscent , apex acute. Pistil subequalling petals; ovary globose , densely punctate; ovules numerous , multiseriate. Fruit purplish red or blackish, oblate , 7-9 mm in diam., densely black punctate. Fl. Feb-Mar, fr. Aug-Nov. 2n = 46. [source]
Habit: Shrub , Tree
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: pale pink, pink
Size: 15-20' tall.
Mixed forests , shrubby areas, mountains or hillsides; 400-1600 m .
Culture: Space 6-8' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Order: Ericales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Anguillaria solanacea (Roxb.) Poir. • Bladhia Solanacea • Bladhia solanacea (Roxb.) Nakai • Icacorea Solanacea • Icacorea solanacea Britton
Publishing author : Roxb. Publication : Hort. Bengal. 16; Fl. Ind. i. 580
Members of the genus Ardisia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. crenata (Coral Ardisia) · A. crispa (Ardisia) · A. densilepidotula (Jun-Aug) · A. elliptica (Shoe-Button Ardisia) · A. escallonioides (Marlberry) · A. escallonoides (Island Marlberry) · A. glauciflora (Ausubon) · A. japonica (Japanese Ardisia) · A. japonica 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Marlberry) · A. lateriflora (Quiebrahacha) · A. luquillensis (Mountain Marlberry) · A. obovata (Guadeloupe Marlberry) · A. opaca (Mala Sombra) · A. pulverulenta (Blossomberry Grape) · A. revoluta (Ardisia) · A. solanacea (Jet Berry) · A. standleyana (Frutita De Paloma) · A. subsessilifolia (Hoja Lisa) · A. wallichii (Ardisia)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649327
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-23890
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13742631
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:587611-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 312564
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 23890
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 587611-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARSO
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22132
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia solanacea". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 15. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]