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Common Names in English:
Shoe-Button Ardisia, Ati Popa'a, Shoebutton, Shoebutton Ardisia, Shoebutton Ardisia Ardisia Elliptica
Common Names in unspecified:
Shoe-Button Ardisia, Shoebutton, Shoebutton Ardisia
, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
[or rarely herbs]. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate
, usually punctate
or punctate-lineate. Inflorescences paniculate
, or umbellate
, rarely racemose. Flowers bisexual
, often punctate, 5- or rarely 4-merous. Calyx campanulate
or cupular; sepals free
or barely united
, imbricate or quincuncial, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Corolla campanulate, often punctate; lobes
united at base, overlapping to right
or very rarely to left, imbricate, or quincuncial, often conical
in bud. Stamens attached at base or middle
of corolla tube
very short, broad at base; anthers
dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores
. Ovary ovoid
or subglobose, as long as or longer
than petals; ovules 3 to many. Style base persistent; stigma minute, apiculate
. Fruit drupaceous
, 1-seeded, punctate, sometimes longitudinally ribbed
, with somewhat fleshy
and crusty or slightly bony endocarp. Seeds covered by membranous remnants of placenta.
About 400-500 species: primarily tropical E and SE Asia, Americas, Australia, and Pacific Islands; 65 species in China.
Species Ardisia elliptica
Shrubs 1-2 m tall, glabrous . Branchlets angular, 3-4.5 mm in diam., glabrous, conspicuously black punctate-lineate, longitudinally ridged . Petiole marginate , 5-10 mm; leaf blade oblanceolate or obovate , 6-12(-16) × 3-5(-7) cm, subleathery, dull and densely punctate abaxially, especially along margin , base cuneate, margin revolute, entire, apex obtuse or acute; lateral veins 12-34 on each side of midrib , marginal vein present. Inflorescences axillary or subterminal on basally thickened lateral branches, subumbellate or umbellate . Flowers leathery, pink or white, 6(-8) mm. Pedicel ca. 1-2 cm, minutely and densely white verruculose , densely punctate. Sepals broadly ovate , ca. 1 mm, densely black punctate, base rugose and subauriculate, margin subentire, scarious , minutely ciliate , apex rounded . Petals almost free , broadly ovate, densely punctate, glabrous, margin hyaline, scarious, entire, apex long attenuate. Stamens subequalling petals; anthers linear-lanceolate, punctate dorsally, longitudinally dehiscent , transversely septate-lobed, apex apiculate . Pistil as long as petals; ovary glabrous, pellucid punctate; ovules numerous , multiseriate. Fruit subglobose, red or purplish black, ca. 8 mm in diam., minutely punctate, fleshy . Fl. Feb-Apr, fr. Sep-Nov. 2n = 48* [source]
Habit: Tree , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: magenta, near white, pale pink, pink, purple, white
Size: 10-12' tall.
, near villages, edges
, along coasts. Cultivated
A. elliptica readily invades moist disturbed forests , however, it has also been able to invade relatively undisturbed sites. Its fast growth and attractive fruit made it a popular ornamental plant in the past. From private and public gardens it has invaded natural areas. Close resemblance between it and A. escallonioides in Florida led to its introduction to Everglades National Park in 1947. Because its fruit is readily consumed by both avian and mammalian frugivores, rapid spread across a landscape is possible. High seed viability (99%) greatly increases success of rare long-distance dispersal events.
Ecology: This species readily forms dense monotypic stands that exclude native species. Due to high reproductive output and high shade-tolerance, carpets of seedlings (>400 plants per square meter) can form underneath adults under ideal conditions (moist soil and shallow litter ). Seedling carpets and increased shade levels inhibit recruitment by native species.
. Given ideal conditions, individuals can reach
reproductive maturity in 2-4 years in the field
and 1-2 years in
a shade house. Large adults
in bright forested sites have been measured
producing up to 400 fruits. However, adults can also successfully
fruit under shady conditions.
Seeds do not have any long-term dormancy (i.e. , greater than 6 months), however, seedlings and juveniles can survive under very shady conditions for many years. Given enough light, juveniles rapidly develop into reproductive adults. In Florida (USA) habitats , there is very little adult mortality. Fruits are readily eaten by frugivores.
Culture: Space 6-8' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Order: Ericales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Ardisia polycephala auct. non Wallich ex A. Dc. • Bladhia Elliptica
Publishing author : Bedd. Publication : For. Man. 138
Members of the genus Ardisia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. crenata (Coral Ardisia) · A. crispa (Ardisia) · A. densilepidotula (Jun-Aug) · A. elliptica (Shoe-Button Ardisia) · A. escallonioides (Marlberry) · A. escallonoides (Island Marlberry) · A. glauciflora (Ausubon) · A. japonica (Japanese Ardisia) · A. japonica 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Marlberry) · A. lateriflora (Quiebrahacha) · A. luquillensis (Mountain Marlberry) · A. obovata (Guadeloupe Marlberry) · A. opaca (Mala Sombra) · A. pulverulenta (Blossomberry Grape) · A. revoluta (Ardisia) · A. solanacea (Jet Berry) · A. standleyana (Frutita De Paloma) · A. subsessilifolia (Hoja Lisa) · A. wallichii (Ardisia)
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- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 73.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 164.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 44 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 70, p. 92.
- Marcellia. New York [etc.]Pergamon Press [etc.] url p. 168, p. 169.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 63.
- Chen Feng-hwai, Hu Chi-ming, Fang Yun-yi, Cheng Chao-zong, Yang Yong-chang & Huang Rong-fu In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (1). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(1): 1-217
- Hu Chi-ming In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (2). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(2): 1-321.
- Chen Chieh. 1979. Myrsinaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 58: 1-147.
- "Ardisia elliptica". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 14. Published by Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 19, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 25, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2663875
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-183615
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13729616
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:586972-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 403463
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 183615
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 586972-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMRS01320
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARPO6
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 17537
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia elliptica". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 14. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]