Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Bai Liang Jin
Common Names in English:
Common Names in German:
, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
[or rarely herbs]. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate
, usually punctate
or punctate-lineate. Inflorescences paniculate
, or umbellate
, rarely racemose. Flowers bisexual
, often punctate, 5- or rarely 4-merous. Calyx campanulate
or cupular; sepals free
or barely united
, imbricate or quincuncial, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Corolla campanulate, often punctate; lobes
united at base, overlapping to right
or very rarely to left, imbricate, or quincuncial, often conical
in bud. Stamens attached at base or middle
of corolla tube
very short, broad at base; anthers
dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores
. Ovary ovoid
or subglobose, as long as or longer
than petals; ovules 3 to many. Style base persistent; stigma minute, apiculate
. Fruit drupaceous
, 1-seeded, punctate, sometimes longitudinally ribbed
, with somewhat fleshy
and crusty or slightly bony endocarp. Seeds covered by membranous remnants of placenta.
About 400-500 species: primarily tropical E and SE Asia, Americas, Australia, and Pacific Islands; 65 species in China.
Species Ardisia crispa
Shrubs or subshrubs 0.6-1.5 m tall, with creeping rhizomes. Stems usually minutely puberulent or sparsely brown scaly when young. Petiole 5-8 mm; leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 7-25 × 1-5.8 cm, membranous or subpapery, glabrous adaxially, usually ± finely brown scaly abaxially, base cuneate, margin entire or shallowly crenulate , recurved, punctate , apex long acuminate or rarely acute; lateral veins ca. 8 on each side of midrib , marginal vein obscure . Inflorescences terminal , subumbellate, simple , on curved specialized lateral branches 5-10 cm. Flowers white or pink, 4-5 mm. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm, puberulent. Sepals oblong-ovate or lanceolate, ca. 1.5 mm, ± sparsely punctate, glabrous, apex acute or narrowly rounded . Petals ovate , 4-5 mm, punctate, glabrous outside, ± minutely puberulent inside, apex acute. Stamens subequalling petals; anthers narrowly oblong-lanceolate, with or without glands dorsally . Ovary glabrous; ovules ca. 5, uniseriate . Fruit reddish, globose , 5-6 mm in diam., punctate. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Oct-Jan. 2n = 24, 46. [source]
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: pink
Size: 4-6' tall.
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -3,046 meters (0 to -9,993 feet).
Biome: Marine .
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Primulaceae () - Batsch ex Borkh., 1797, nom. cons. - primevères, primroses
- Order: Ericales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : A.DC. Publication : Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17(1): 124 1834 [1837 publ. 26 Apr-8 May 1834]
Members of the genus Ardisia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. crenata (Coral Ardisia) · A. crispa (Ardisia) · A. densilepidotula (Jun-Aug) · A. elliptica (Shoe-Button Ardisia) · A. escallonioides (Marlberry) · A. escallonoides (Island Marlberry) · A. glauciflora (Ausubon) · A. japonica (Japanese Ardisia) · A. japonica 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Marlberry) · A. lateriflora (Quiebrahacha) · A. luquillensis (Mountain Marlberry) · A. obovata (Guadeloupe Marlberry) · A. opaca (Mala Sombra) · A. pulverulenta (Blossomberry Grape) · A. revoluta (Ardisia) · A. solanacea (Jet Berry) · A. standleyana (Frutita De Paloma) · A. subsessilifolia (Hoja Lisa) · A. wallichii (Ardisia)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants, by E. D. Merrill. Singapore, Printed by Fraser & Neave, ltd., 1921 url p. 470, p. 470.
- A contribution to our knowledge of seedlings; by the Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, & co., ltd., 1892. url .
- A general system of botany, descriptive and analytical. In two parts. Part I. Outlines of organography, anatomy, and physiology. Part II. Descriptions and illustrations of the orders. By Emm. Le Maout [and] J. Decaisne. With 5500 figures by L. Steinheil a London, Longmans, Green & Co.1873. url .
- A manual of Indian timbers: an account of the structure, growth, distribution, and qualities of Indian woods. CalcuttaOffice of the Superintendent of Govt. Printing1881 url p. 240.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 257.
- An introduction to bacterial diseases of plants / by Erwin F. Smith. London: W.B. Saunders Co., 1920. url p. 41.
- Bibliographical contributions from the Lloyd library, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, Ohio, Lloyd Library. url p. 602.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url , p. 470.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1918 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 14, p. 15, p. 348.
- Chinese materia medica. extensively revised from F. Porter Smith's work by G. A. Stuart. Shanghai?: Presbyterian Mission Press?, 1911? url p. 471.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 308, p. 496.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 92.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url , p. 30, p. 52, p. 545, p. 63, p. 928.
- Flora Hongkongensis; a description of the flowering plants and ferns of the island of Hongkong. LondonL. Reeve1861 url p. 206, p. 207.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 791, p. 792.
- Flora hongkongensis: a description of the flowering plants and ferns of the island of Hongkong. London, L. Reeve, 1861. url , .
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 713, p. 714.
- General index to the flora of Formosa as recorded in all literature up to the publication of Icones plantarum Formosanarum VI = Taiwan shokubutsu somokuroku / [B. Hayata] [Taihoku]: Taiwan Sotokufu Minseibu Shokusankyoku, 1917. url p. 44.
- Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam: or, Icones of the plants of Formosa, and materials for a flora of the island, based on a study of the collections of the Botanical survey of the Government of Formosa / By B. Hayata. .. Taihoku: Bureau of Productive Industry, Government of Formosa, 1911-1921. url p. 92.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 196, p. 369, p. 404, p. 404, p. 435, p. 437, p. 455, p. 467, p. 471, p. 505, p. 541, p. 697, p. 731, p. 161, p. 196, p. 219, p. 276, p. 369, p. 397, p. 404, p. 435, p. 455, p. 467, p. 471, p. 505, p. 697, p. 731.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 81.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 297.
- Miyabe-festschrift, or A collection of botanical papers presented to Prof. Dr. Kingo Miyabe on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his academic service by his friends and pupils. Tokio, Rokumeikwan, 1911. url p. 330.
- Nature. London, Macmillan. url p. 599.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 14 1923-1924 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 127, p. 318, p. 339, p. 52.
- Observations on the flora of Japan. Tokyo, 1901-1914. url p. 57, p. 59.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Japan. [1900?- url p. 67.
- Plant Form OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS url p. 204, p. 322.
- Plantae Wilsonianae; an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. Cambridge, University Press, 1913-17. url p. 486, p. 523, p. 533, p. 535, p. 573, p. 581, p. 584, p. 630.
- Preliminary report on the forest and other vegetation of Pegu. CalcuttaC.B. Lewis, Baptist Mission Press1875 url p. 32, p. 35, p. 37.
- Principles of soil microbiology, by Selman A. Waksman. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1927. url p. 105, p. 140.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 966.
- Sargent, C. S. Plantae Wilsonianae: an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 /by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. 3 1917 Cambridge: The University press, 1913-17. url p. 486, p. 523, p. 533, p. 535, p. 573, p. 581, p. 584, p. 630.
- Seemann, B. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Herald: under the command of Captain Henry Kellett, R.N., C.B., during the years 1845-51 /by Berthold Seemann. 1852-1857 London: Lovell Reeve, 1852-1857. url p. 397.
- South African journal of science. [Marshalltown, Transvaal: South African Association for the Advancement of Science, url p. 68.
- The American botanist: a monthly journal for the plant lover. Binghamton, N.Y.: Willard N. Clute & Co., 1901-1948. url p. 162.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 157, p. 181, p. 203, p. 223.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 528, p. 666, p. 693.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 260, p. 51, p. 639, p. 708.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 103, p. 130, p. 421.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. 1856 London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 343, p. 419, p. 435.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , p. 181, p. 298, p. 342.
- The Journal of agricultural science. Cambridge [Eng.]The University Press. url p. 463.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 226.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 13 1873 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 111, p. 63.
- The Philippine journal of science. 5 1910 Manila. url p. 372.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 884.
- The biology of flowering plants, by Macgregor Skene. .. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1924. url p. 264, p. 265, p. 484, p. 485, p. 502.
- The conifers and taxads of Japan. Issued December 30, 1916. CambridgeUniversity Press1916 url p. 67.
- The cultivated evergreens; a handbook of the coniferous and most important broad-leaved evergreens planted for ornament in the United States and Canada, edited by L. H. Bailey. London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1923. url p. 377.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 524, p. 524.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The newer knowledge of bacteriology and immunology, by eighty-two contributors; edited by Edwin O. Jordan and I.S. Falk. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press url p. 605.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 387.
- Chen Feng-hwai, Hu Chi-ming, Fang Yun-yi, Cheng Chao-zong, Yang Yong-chang & Huang Rong-fu In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (1). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(1): 1-217
- Hu Chi-ming In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (2). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(2): 1-321.
- Chen Chieh. 1979. Myrsinaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 58: 1-147.
- "Ardisia crispa". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 28. Published by Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-2007. Systema Naturae 2000. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Accessed March 28, 2007.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 15, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 5 providers.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 24, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 15, 2008:
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad: Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México (IE-XAL)
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS: Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility: Magnoliophyta- Taiwan Biodiversity Data for GBIF
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3422770
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15634798
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:586896-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3882
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 586896-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 951895
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = -224.000 meters (-734.908 feet), Standard Deviation = 944.430 based on 14 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]