Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Chinese:
Zhu Sha Gen
Common Names in English:
Coral Ardisia, Coral Bush, Coralberry, Coralberry Tree, Hen´s-Eyes, Hen's Eyes, Hen's- Eyes, Hilo Holly, Spiceberry
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
[or rarely herbs]. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate
, usually punctate
or punctate-lineate. Inflorescences paniculate
, or umbellate
, rarely racemose. Flowers bisexual
, often punctate, 5- or rarely 4-merous. Calyx campanulate
or cupular; sepals free
or barely united
, imbricate or quincuncial, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Corolla campanulate, often punctate; lobes
united at base, overlapping to right
or very rarely to left, imbricate, or quincuncial, often conical
in bud. Stamens attached at base or middle
of corolla tube
very short, broad at base; anthers
dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores
. Ovary ovoid
or subglobose, as long as or longer
than petals; ovules 3 to many. Style base persistent; stigma minute, apiculate
. Fruit drupaceous
, 1-seeded, punctate, sometimes longitudinally ribbed
, with somewhat fleshy
and crusty or slightly bony endocarp. Seeds covered by membranous remnants of placenta.
About 400-500 species: primarily tropical E and SE Asia, Americas, Australia, and Pacific Islands; 65 species in China.
Species Ardisia crenata
tall, without creeping
rhizomes, minutely reddish
leaf surface, and inflorescence
rachis, early glabrescent
. Branchlets terete
, 3-4 mm in diam. Petiole
, 6-10 mm, glabrous
; leaf blade elliptic
lanceolate, or oblanceolate
, 7-15 × 2-4 cm, leathery or papery
, with large vascularized marginal
nodules, apex acute
or acuminate; lateral
veins 12-18 on each side of midrib
often hidden by reflexed
margin. Inflorescences terminal
, on specialized, 2- or 3-leaved lateral branches 4-16(-40)
cm. Flowers membranous, white or rarely pinkish, 4-6 mm.
7-10 cm. Sepals oblong-ovate, 1-1.5(-2.5) mm, glabrous, punctate,
margin entire, apex rounded
. Petals nearly free
punctate, glandular papillose adaxially near base, apex acute. Stamens
shorter than petals; filaments
punctate dorsally, longitudinally dehiscent
, acute. Pistil subequalling
petals; ovary glabrous, punctate; ovules ca.
, 6-8 mm in diam., punctate. Fl.
May-Jun, fr. Oct-Dec.
Ardisia crenata is closely related to A. pseudocrispa Pitard (=A. corymbifera Mez. var. tubifera C. Chen), from which it differs in having crenate leaves with a distinct marginal vein. Ardisia pseudocrispa, which occurs in Guangxi and Vietnam, has subentire leaves without a marginal vein. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: pink
Size: 4-6' tall.
Forests , hillsides, valleys, shrubby areas, dark damp places; 100-2400 m .
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Primulaceae () - Batsch ex Borkh., 1797, nom. cons. - primevères, primroses
- Order: Ericales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A. crispa (Thunberg) A. De Candolle Var. taquetii H. Léveillé • A. konishii Hayata • A. kusukusensis Hayata • A. labordei H. Léveillé • A. lentiginosa Ker Gawler • A. linangensis C. M. Hu • A. miaoliensis S. Y. Lu; Bladhia crenata (Sims) H. hara • Ardisia bicolor E. Walker; A. crenata var. bicolor (E. Walker) C. Y. Wu & C. Chen • B. crispa Thunberg var. taquetii (H. Léveillé) Nakai • B. lentiginosa (Ker Gawler) Nakai Var. lanceolata Masamune.
Publishing author : Roxb. Publication : Hort. Bengal. 85 (1814), nomen; Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., ii. 276 (1824); Fl .Ind. &, ed. Carey, i. 583 (1832).
Members of the genus Ardisia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. crenata (Coral Ardisia) · A. crispa (Ardisia) · A. densilepidotula (Jun-Aug) · A. elliptica (Shoe-Button Ardisia) · A. escallonioides (Marlberry) · A. escallonoides (Island Marlberry) · A. glauciflora (Ausubon) · A. japonica (Japanese Ardisia) · A. japonica 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Marlberry) · A. lateriflora (Quiebrahacha) · A. luquillensis (Mountain Marlberry) · A. obovata (Guadeloupe Marlberry) · A. opaca (Mala Sombra) · A. pulverulenta (Blossomberry Grape) · A. revoluta (Ardisia) · A. solanacea (Jet Berry) · A. standleyana (Frutita De Paloma) · A. subsessilifolia (Hoja Lisa) · A. wallichii (Ardisia)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2663874
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-183614
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14156414
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:586892-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3880
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 183614
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 586890-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMRS01310
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARCR80
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21147
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ardisia crenata". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 19. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]