Common Names in English:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
Biennials or (monocarpic
) perennials, 50-300 cm; herbage
. Stems erect
, openly branched, branches ascending
. Leaves basal and cauline; long-petiolate; gradually smaller distally; blade
entire or dentate
abaxially resin-gland-dotted, adaxially often tomentose
. Heads discoid
, in leafy-bracted racemiform
arrays. ( Peduncles 0 or 1-9 cm.) Involucres spheric to ovoid
. Phyllaries many in 9-17 series, outer and mid narrowly linear
, margins entire. apices stiffly radiating, hooked-spiny tipped, inner linear, ascending or erect, straight tipped. Receptacles ± flat, epaleate, bearing subulate
. Florets (5-) 20-40+; corollas pink to ± purple, glabrous
or glandular-puberulent, tubes
narrowly triangular, ± equal; anther
, apical appendages
to acute; style branches: fused portions distally hairy-ringed, distinct
, acute or obtuse . Cypselae obovoid
. ± compressed
, rough or ribbed
, glabrous, attachment scars
basal; pappi falling, of many bristles
in 2-4 series . x = 18.
Species 10: introduced ; Eurasia , n Africa, widely introduced worldwide.
At maturity the dry heads of Arctium species are readily caducous with the enclosed cypselae, and the hooked phyllary tips cling easily to fur or fabrics. Animal dispersal is a major factor in the spread of burdock species across North America. The burs are a major problem when they become entangled in the wool of sheep and fur of dogs and other animals.
Published chromosome reports for Arctium other than n = 18 are probably in error because of difficulty in interpretation of somatic chromosomes (R. J. Moore and C. Frankton 1974).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,422 meters (0 to 4,665 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, Euro+Med, LCR Editor. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:E4855F97-20FD-4E24-89B9-5E0D77E4915C
Last scrutiny: 12-Nov-09
Members of the genus Arctium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. lappa (Beggars Buttons) · A. lappa majus (Edible Burdock) · A. lappa 'Chiko' (Beggars Buttons) · A. lappa 'Ha Gobo' (Edible Burdock) · A. lappa 'Shirohada' (Vegetable Burdock) · A. lappa 'Takinogawa' (Edible Burdock) · A. lappa 'Takinogawa Long' (Beggars Buttons) · A. lappa 'Watanabe Early' (Edible Burdock) · A. minus (Bardane) · A. mixtum (Burrdock) · A. nemorosum (Wood Burdock) · A. nothum (Burrdock) · A. tomentosum (Woolly Burdock) · A. vulgare (European Burdock) · A. x mixtum (Burrdock) · A. x nothum (Burrdock)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2772433
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-797
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3964127
- David J. Keil "Arctium". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 28, 58, 83, 168, 169. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 104.310 meters (342.224 feet), Standard Deviation = 143.840 based on 3,436 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]