Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Niu Bang Zi
Common Names in English:
Beggars Buttons, Burdock, Cockle-Button, Edible Burdock, Grande Bardane, Great Burdock, Great Burdock, Greater Burdock, Greater Burrdock, Lappa
Common Names in French:
Bardane Comestible, Glouteron, Grande Bardane
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Spanish:
Bardana, Lampazo Mayor, Lapa
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
Biennials or (monocarpic
) perennials, 50-300 cm; herbage
. Stems erect
, openly branched, branches ascending
. Leaves basal and cauline; long-petiolate; gradually smaller distally; blade
entire or dentate
abaxially resin-gland-dotted, adaxially often tomentose
. Heads discoid
, in leafy-bracted racemiform
arrays. ( Peduncles 0 or 1-9 cm.) Involucres spheric to ovoid
. Phyllaries many in 9-17 series, outer and mid narrowly linear
, margins entire. apices stiffly radiating, hooked-spiny tipped, inner linear, ascending or erect, straight tipped. Receptacles ± flat, epaleate, bearing subulate
. Florets (5-) 20-40+; corollas pink to ± purple, glabrous
or glandular-puberulent, tubes
narrowly triangular, ± equal; anther
, apical appendages
to acute; style branches: fused portions distally hairy-ringed, distinct
, acute or obtuse . Cypselae obovoid
. ± compressed
, rough or ribbed
, glabrous, attachment scars
basal; pappi falling, of many bristles
in 2-4 series . x = 18.
Species 10: introduced ; Eurasia , n Africa, widely introduced worldwide.
At maturity the dry heads of Arctium species are readily caducous with the enclosed cypselae, and the hooked phyllary tips cling easily to fur or fabrics. Animal dispersal is a major factor in the spread of burdock species across North America. The burs are a major problem when they become entangled in the wool of sheep and fur of dogs and other animals.
Published chromosome reports for Arctium other than n = 18 are probably in error because of difficulty in interpretation of somatic chromosomes (R. J. Moore and C. Frankton 1974).
Species Arctium lappa
Plants to 100-300 cm. Basal leaves : petioles solid, 15-36 cm, glabrous or thinly cobwebby; blades 25-80 × 20-70 cm, coarsely dentate to subentire , abaxially thinly gray-tomentose, adaxially green, sparsely short-hairy to nearly glabrous. Heads usually in corymbiform clusters , long-pedunculate. Peduncles 2.5-6 cm. Involucres 25-45 mm diam. Phyllaries linear to linear-lanceolate, glabrous to loosely cobwebby, inner usually stramineous (sometimes purplish), margins with minute spreading or reflexed hairs . Florets 40+; corollas purple (occasionally white), 9-14 mm, glabrous. Cypselae light brown, often with darker spots, 6-7.5 mm; pappus bristles 2-5 mm. 2n = 32 (Japan), 34 (China), 36 (Japan) ; (Sweden). [source]
places, roadsides, fields
clearings; 0-2200 m
• Flower Color: blue-violet, red-purple
Size: 24-36" tall.
Waste places, roadsides, fields , forest clearings; 0-2200 m (Ref. 51656).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,631 meters (0 to 8,632 feet).
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Arundinaria japonica Sieb. & Zucc. Ex Steud. • Lappa Lappa • Sasa japonica (Sieb. & Zucc. Ex Steud.) Makino
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: SANBI, New Zealand Plant Name Database, Flora Malesiana, Flora of Korea, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Flora of China Checklist, Tropicos, Euro+Med, Vietnam Flora, New South Wales Flora Online. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:064F5669-8F83-4377-AE71-60BABA4EB805
Last scrutiny: 12-Nov-09
Members of the genus Arctium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. lappa (Beggars Buttons) · A. lappa majus (Edible Burdock) · A. lappa 'Chiko' (Beggars Buttons) · A. lappa 'Ha Gobo' (Edible Burdock) · A. lappa 'Shirohada' (Vegetable Burdock) · A. lappa 'Takinogawa' (Edible Burdock) · A. lappa 'Takinogawa Long' (Beggars Buttons) · A. lappa 'Watanabe Early' (Edible Burdock) · A. minus (Bardane) · A. mixtum (Burrdock) · A. nemorosum (Wood Burdock) · A. nothum (Burrdock) · A. tomentosum (Woolly Burdock) · A. vulgare (European Burdock) · A. x mixtum (Burrdock) · A. x nothum (Burrdock)
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- Duistermaat, H. 1996. Monograph of Arctium L. (Asteraceae). Gorteria, suppl. 3: 1143.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, GEO Biodiversity Day
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657963
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-868
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5304283
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:178386-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3857
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 36545
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST0M010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LAMA13
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21134
- David J. Keil "Arctium". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 28, 58, 83, 168, 169. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 118.890 meters (390.059 feet), Standard Deviation = 175.190 based on 3,491 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]