Common Names in English:
Tower Rockcress, Tower-Mustard
, biennial, or perennial
, rarely subshrubs
, or stalked
, sometimes mixed with fewer simple
ones, rarely primarily simple. Stems simple or branched apically. Basal leaves
, rosulate, simple, often entire, sometimes dentate
, rarely lyrate-pinnatifid. Cauline leaves sessile and auriculate
, or amplexicaul
, very rarely petiolate, entire or dentate. Racemes
or rarely bracteate
throughout or only basally, sometimes in panicles, elongated in fruit. Fruiting pedicels erect
, or reflexed
. Sepals ovate
or not, margin
membranous. Petals white, pink, or purple; blade
, oblong, or oblanceolate
, rarely obovate
, apex obtuse
shorter than sepals. Stamens 6, tetradynamous
usually not dilated
at base; anthers
ovate, oblong, or linear
, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands confluent
bases of all stamens; median
sometimes toothlike and free
, rarely absent; lateral glands semiannular or annular
. Ovules 12-110 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear, latiseptate
, sessile or rarely shortly stipitate
, with an obscure
; replum rounded
; septum complete
, membranous, translucent
, veinless; style obsolete
; stigma capitate, entire or slightly 2-lobed. Seeds uniseriate
, oblong or orbicular
, flattened; seed coat
smooth or minutely reticulate
, not mucilaginous
when wetted; cotyledons accumbent
About 70 species: temperate Asia, Europe, North America; 14 species (one endemic) in China.
The limits of Arabis are highly artificial, and the genus is defined primarily on the basis of having branched trichomes, flattened, linear fruit, and accumbent cotyledons . However, this combination of characters has evolved independently several times in the Brassicaceae. A critical study of the genus on worldwide basis is much needed.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: pale yellow
Size: 36-48" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Arabis Ambigua Glabra • Arabis glabra var. furcatipilis M. Hopkins • Arabis kamchatica (Fisch. Ex Dc.) Ledeb. Var. glabra (Dc.) N. Busch • Arabis Kamchatica Glabra • Turritis glabra L.
An accepted name
in the RHS
Name Status: Accepted Name. Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000.
Name verified on 15-Jan-2003 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 11-Feb-2007
Members of the genus Arabis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 227 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. aculeolata (Waldo Rock-Cress) · A. alpina (Alpine Rock Cress) · A. androsacea (Rock Cress) · A. arendsii 'Compinkie' (Rock Cress) · A. arenicola (Arctic Rock-Cress) · A. aubrietioides (Rockcress) · A. beckwithii (Beckwith's Rockcress) · A. blepharophylla (Coast Rock Cress) · A. blepharophylla 'Red Sensation' (Pink Rock Cress) · A. blepharophylla 'Spring Charm' (Pink Rock Cress) · A. bodiensis (Bodie Hill Rock Cress) · A. boivinii (Boivin's Rockcress) · A. breweri (Brewer's Rock-Cress) · A. breweri var. austiniae (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. austiniae (Greene) Rollins (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. breweri (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. breweri S.Watson (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. pecuniaria (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. pecuniaria Rollins (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. bryoides (Rockcress) · A. calderi (Calder's Rockcress) · A. canadensis (Sicklepod) · A. carduchorum (Rockcress) · A. caucasica (Gray Rockcress) · A. caucasica 'Compinkie' (Compinkie Arabis) · A. caucasica 'Rosea' (Rock Cress) · A. caucasica 'Snowcap' (Rock Cress) · A. caucasica 'Snow Cap' (Snow Cap Rock Cress) · A. caucasica 'Spring Charm' (Spring Charm Arabis) · A. cobrensis (Gray Rockcress) · A. codyi (Cody's Rockcress) · A. collina rosea (Rockcress) · A. constancei (Constance's Rock Cress) · A. crandallii (Crandall's Rock-Cress) · A. crucisetosa (Cross-Haired Rock Cress) · A. cusickii (Cusick's Rockcress) · A. davidsonii (Davidson's Rockcress) · A. davidsonii var. davidsonii (Davidson's Rockcress) · A. davidsonii var. parva (Davidson's Rockcress) · A. demissa (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. demissa (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. demissa Greene (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. languida (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. languida Rollins (Nodding Rockcress) · A. dispar (Pinyon Rockcress) · A. divaricarpa (Spreading Rockcress) · A. drummondii (Canadian Rockcress) · A. eschscholtziana (Eschscholtz's Hairy Rockcress) · A. falcatoria (Grouse Creek Rockcress) · A. falcifructa (Elko Rockcress) · A. fecunda (Sapphire Rockcress) · A. fendleri (Fendler Rock-Cress) · A. fendleri var. fendleri (Fendler's Rockcress) · A. fendleri var. spatifolia (Spoonleaf Rockcress) · A. fendleri var. spatifolia (Rydb.) Rollins (Fendler Rockcress) · A. ferdinandi-coburgii (Rockcress) · A. ferdinandi-coburgii 'Old Gold' (Arabis) · A. ferdinandi-coburgii 'Variegata' (Rockcress) · A. ferdinandi-coburgi 'Old Gold' (Alpine Wall Cress) · A. fernaldiana (Fernald Rock-Cress) · A. fernaldiana Rollins var. fernaldiana Rollins (Rockcress) · A. fernaldiana Rollins var. stylosa (S.Watson) Rollins (Rockcress) · A. fernaldiana var. fernaldiana (Park Rockcress) · A. fernaldiana var. stylosa (Park Rockcress) · A. fructicosa (Fruit Rock Cress) · A. furcata (Cascade Rockcress) · A. furcata S.Watson var. furcata S.Watson (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. furcata S.Watson var. olympica (Piper) Rollins (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. furcata var. furcata (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. furcata var. olympica (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. georgiana (Georgia Rock-Cress) · A. glabra (Tower Rockcress) · A. glabra var. glabra (Tower Rockcress) · A. glaucovalvula (Blue-Pod Rockcress) · A. gracilipes (Flagstaff Rockcress) · A. gunnisoniana (Gunnison's Rockcress) · A. hastatula (Eared Rockcress) · A. hirshbergiae (Cuyamaca Rockcress) · A. hirsuta (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta pycnocarpa (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta sagittata (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta var. glabrata (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta var. hirsuta (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta var. pycnocarpa (Creamflower Rockcress) · A. hoffmannii (Hoffmann's Rock Cress) · A. holboellii (Holboell Rock-Cress) · A. holboellii Hornem. var. pendulocarpa (A.Nelson) Rollins (Dropseed Rockcress) · A. holboellii Hornem. var. pinetorum (Tidestr.) Rollins (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. collinsii (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. holboellii (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. pendulocarpa (Dropseed Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. pinetorum (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. retrofracta (Holboell Rock-Cress) · A. inyoensis (Inyo Rockcress) · A. johnstonii (Johnston's Rock Cress) · A. kamchatica (Kamchatica Rockcress) · A. kennedyae (Troodos Rockcress) · A. koehleri (Koehler Rock-Cress) · A. koehleri T.J.Howell var. koehleri T.J.Howell (Koehler's Rockcress) · A. koehleri T.J.Howell var. stipitata Rollins (Koehler's Rockcress)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2648408
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-22695
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4706086
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:133499-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 316558
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 22695
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 278233-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBRA060P0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TUGL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 20089
- "Arabis". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 113. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 266.970 meters (875.886 feet), Standard Deviation = 343.110 based on 4,287 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]