Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Sicklepod, Sicklepod Rockcress
Common Names in French:
Arabette Du Canada
, biennial, or perennial
, rarely subshrubs
, or stalked
, sometimes mixed with fewer simple
ones, rarely primarily simple. Stems simple or branched apically. Basal leaves
, rosulate, simple, often entire, sometimes dentate
, rarely lyrate-pinnatifid. Cauline leaves sessile and auriculate
, or amplexicaul
, very rarely petiolate, entire or dentate. Racemes
or rarely bracteate
throughout or only basally, sometimes in panicles, elongated in fruit. Fruiting pedicels erect
, or reflexed
. Sepals ovate
or not, margin
membranous. Petals white, pink, or purple; blade
, oblong, or oblanceolate
, rarely obovate
, apex obtuse
shorter than sepals. Stamens 6, tetradynamous
usually not dilated
at base; anthers
ovate, oblong, or linear
, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands confluent
bases of all stamens; median
sometimes toothlike and free
, rarely absent; lateral glands semiannular or annular
. Ovules 12-110 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear, latiseptate
, sessile or rarely shortly stipitate
, with an obscure
; replum rounded
; septum complete
, membranous, translucent
, veinless; style obsolete
; stigma capitate, entire or slightly 2-lobed. Seeds uniseriate
, oblong or orbicular
, flattened; seed coat
smooth or minutely reticulate
, not mucilaginous
when wetted; cotyledons accumbent
About 70 species: temperate Asia, Europe, North America; 14 species (one endemic) in China.
The limits of Arabis are highly artificial, and the genus is defined primarily on the basis of having branched trichomes, flattened, linear fruit, and accumbent cotyledons . However, this combination of characters has evolved independently several times in the Brassicaceae. A critical study of the genus on worldwide basis is much needed.
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Royle ex
Hook.f. & Thomson Publication
Linn. Soc. v. (1861) 142
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:665. 1753
Name verified on 03-Oct-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Members of the genus Arabis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 227 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. aculeolata (Waldo Rock-Cress) · A. alpina (Alpine Rock Cress) · A. androsacea (Rock Cress) · A. arendsii 'Compinkie' (Rock Cress) · A. arenicola (Arctic Rock-Cress) · A. aubrietioides (Rockcress) · A. beckwithii (Beckwith's Rockcress) · A. blepharophylla (Coast Rock Cress) · A. blepharophylla 'Red Sensation' (Pink Rock Cress) · A. blepharophylla 'Spring Charm' (Pink Rock Cress) · A. bodiensis (Bodie Hill Rock Cress) · A. boivinii (Boivin's Rockcress) · A. breweri (Brewer's Rock-Cress) · A. breweri var. austiniae (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. austiniae (Greene) Rollins (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. breweri (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. breweri S.Watson (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. pecuniaria (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. breweri var. pecuniaria Rollins (Brewer's Rockcress) · A. bryoides (Rockcress) · A. calderi (Calder's Rockcress) · A. canadensis (Sicklepod) · A. carduchorum (Rockcress) · A. caucasica (Gray Rockcress) · A. caucasica 'Compinkie' (Compinkie Arabis) · A. caucasica 'Rosea' (Rock Cress) · A. caucasica 'Snowcap' (Rock Cress) · A. caucasica 'Snow Cap' (Snow Cap Rock Cress) · A. caucasica 'Spring Charm' (Spring Charm Arabis) · A. cobrensis (Gray Rockcress) · A. codyi (Cody's Rockcress) · A. collina rosea (Rockcress) · A. constancei (Constance's Rock Cress) · A. crandallii (Crandall's Rock-Cress) · A. crucisetosa (Cross-Haired Rock Cress) · A. cusickii (Cusick's Rockcress) · A. davidsonii (Davidson's Rockcress) · A. davidsonii var. davidsonii (Davidson's Rockcress) · A. davidsonii var. parva (Davidson's Rockcress) · A. demissa (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. demissa (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. demissa Greene (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. languida (Nodding Rockcress) · A. demissa var. languida Rollins (Nodding Rockcress) · A. dispar (Pinyon Rockcress) · A. divaricarpa (Spreading Rockcress) · A. drummondii (Canadian Rockcress) · A. eschscholtziana (Eschscholtz's Hairy Rockcress) · A. falcatoria (Grouse Creek Rockcress) · A. falcifructa (Elko Rockcress) · A. fecunda (Sapphire Rockcress) · A. fendleri (Fendler Rock-Cress) · A. fendleri var. fendleri (Fendler's Rockcress) · A. fendleri var. spatifolia (Spoonleaf Rockcress) · A. fendleri var. spatifolia (Rydb.) Rollins (Fendler Rockcress) · A. ferdinandi-coburgii (Rockcress) · A. ferdinandi-coburgii 'Old Gold' (Arabis) · A. ferdinandi-coburgii 'Variegata' (Rockcress) · A. ferdinandi-coburgi 'Old Gold' (Alpine Wall Cress) · A. fernaldiana (Fernald Rock-Cress) · A. fernaldiana Rollins var. fernaldiana Rollins (Rockcress) · A. fernaldiana Rollins var. stylosa (S.Watson) Rollins (Rockcress) · A. fernaldiana var. fernaldiana (Park Rockcress) · A. fernaldiana var. stylosa (Park Rockcress) · A. fructicosa (Fruit Rock Cress) · A. furcata (Cascade Rockcress) · A. furcata S.Watson var. furcata S.Watson (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. furcata S.Watson var. olympica (Piper) Rollins (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. furcata var. furcata (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. furcata var. olympica (Columbia Gorge Rockcress) · A. georgiana (Georgia Rock-Cress) · A. glabra (Tower Rockcress) · A. glabra var. glabra (Tower Rockcress) · A. glaucovalvula (Blue-Pod Rockcress) · A. gracilipes (Flagstaff Rockcress) · A. gunnisoniana (Gunnison's Rockcress) · A. hastatula (Eared Rockcress) · A. hirshbergiae (Cuyamaca Rockcress) · A. hirsuta (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta pycnocarpa (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta sagittata (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta var. glabrata (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta var. hirsuta (Hairy Rockcress) · A. hirsuta var. pycnocarpa (Creamflower Rockcress) · A. hoffmannii (Hoffmann's Rock Cress) · A. holboellii (Holboell Rock-Cress) · A. holboellii Hornem. var. pendulocarpa (A.Nelson) Rollins (Dropseed Rockcress) · A. holboellii Hornem. var. pinetorum (Tidestr.) Rollins (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. collinsii (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. holboellii (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. pendulocarpa (Dropseed Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. pinetorum (Holboell's Rockcress) · A. holboellii var. retrofracta (Holboell Rock-Cress) · A. inyoensis (Inyo Rockcress) · A. johnstonii (Johnston's Rock Cress) · A. kamchatica (Kamchatica Rockcress) · A. kennedyae (Troodos Rockcress) · A. koehleri (Koehler Rock-Cress) · A. koehleri T.J.Howell var. koehleri T.J.Howell (Koehler's Rockcress) · A. koehleri T.J.Howell var. stipitata Rollins (Koehler's Rockcress)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A botanical survey of the Sugar Grove region / by Robert F. Griggs. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 317.
- A catalogue of the phaenogamous plants of Great Britain: arranged according to the natural orders: with a copious list of synonyms carefully compiled from Steudel's Nomenclator botanicus, Smith's English flora, Hookers's British flora, Lindley's Synopsis, by Henry Ibbotson. London: H. Bailliere, 1848. url p. 14.
- A compendium of the flora of the northern and middle states, containing generic and specific descriptions of all the plants, exclusive of the cryptogamia, hitherto found in the United States, north of the Potomac. New York, S. B. Collins, 1826. url p. 250.
- A contribution to the knowledge of the flora of southeastern Minnesota. [Boston, Heliotype Print. Co.]1900. url p. 389.
- A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, by J. C. Willis. CambridgeThe University Press, 1919 url p. 607.
- A manual of botany for the northern and middle states. By Amos Eaton. Albany: Printed and published by Websters and Skinners, 1818. url p. 141.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 178, p. 182, p. 182.
- An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language, by George T. Stevens. .. with more than 1800 illustrations from drawings by the author. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1910. url p. 287.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 366.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 102, p. 166.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 1909 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 165, p. 177.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 463, p. 466, p. 55.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893- url p. 257, p. 257.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 134.
- Atlas of the rare vascular plants of Ontario / Ottawa: Botany Division, National Museum of Natural Sciences = Division de la botanique, Musée national des sciences naturelles, 1982-1987. url .
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 42 - 46 1973 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 19, p. 34, p. 7, p. 76, p. 8, p. 8.
- Botany for secondary schools; a guide to the knowledge of the vegetation of the neighborhood, by L. H. Bailey. New York, Macmillan, 1920. url p. 366.
- Botany of the northern and middle states, or, A description of the plants found in the United States, north of Virginia: arranged according to the natural system: with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnaean system. .. / Albany: Printed by Webster and Skinners. .., 1833. url p. 30.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 102, p. 166.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 169, p. 317.
- Bulletin from the laboratories of natural history of the State University of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa: The University, 1888-. url p. 197.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 27 1900 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 334, p. 666, p. 704.
- Bulletin of the scientific laboratories of Denison University. Granville, Ohio: [The University], 1885- url p. 6.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 169.
- Catalogue of the cabinet of natural history of the state of New York, and of the historical and antiquarian collection annexed thereto. Albany, C. Van Benthuysen, printer, 1853. url .
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 211.
- Checklist of plants of the Ottawa District. Ottawa, 1958. url p. 47.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1892- url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 21 1919 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 168, p. 528.
- Contributions to the botany of Vermont. Burlington, Vt.: Botanical Dept., University of Vermont, 1898-1911. url p. 97.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 15, p. 3, p. 43.
- Fieldbook of Illinois wild flowers; six hundred fifty of the more common flowering plants in the state. Urbana, 1936. url p. 135, p. 135, p. 393.
- Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years by Frederick Pursh. .. London: Printed for James Black and son, 1816. url p. 437.
- Flora Peoriana; the vegetation in the climate of middle Illinois. Peoria, Ill., J. W. Franks & Sons, 1887. url , p. 44.
- Flora of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Boston, Printed for the Society, 1922. url , p. 272.
- Flora of Burlington and vicinity; a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation, by Nellie F. Flynn. Burlington, Free Press Printing Co., 1911. url p. 97.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 133.
- Flora of Illinois, containing keys for identification of flowering plants and ferns. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame Press, 1963. url p. 74.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 505, p. 507.
- Flora of Lancaster County: being descriptions of the seed-plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania / by John Kunkel Small and Joel Jackson Carter. New York: The authors, 1913. url p. 138.
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb.[c1912] url .
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the ferns, conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb., 1923 url p. 73.
- Flora of Vermont. List of ferns and seed plants growing without cultivation. Prepared by Vermont Botanical Club. Burlington, Vt., Free Press Print. Co., 1915. url p. 205.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 207.
- Flora of Winneshiek County. Des Moines: 1906. url .
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 168.
- Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District, by Donald Culross Peattie. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 204.
- Florula cestrica: an essay towards a catalogue of the phænogamous plants, native and naturalized, growing in the vicinity of the borough of West-Chester, in Chester County, Pennsylvania; to which is subjoined an appen by William Darlington. West-Chester, Penn.: Printed for the author by S. Siegfried, 1826. url p. 74.
- Harper's guide to wild flowers, by Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey. New York, Harper, 1912. url p. 507, p. 520, p. 81.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 169, p. 175.
- Illinois wild flowers, by John Voss and Virginia S. Eifert. Springfield,  url p. 140.
- J.M. Nickell's botanical ready reference: especially designed for druggists and physicians: containing all of the botanical drugs known up to the present time, giving their medical properties, and all of their botanical, common, pharmacopoea compiled by J. M. Nickell. Chicago: Murray & Nickell Mfg. Co., 1911. url p. 19.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 135, p. 135.
- Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington [etc., Washington Academy of Sciences] url p. 587.
- Lake Maxinkuckee. A physical and biological survey by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. [Indianapolis]Dept. of Conservation, State of Indiana [Wm. B. Burford, printer]1920. url p. 319, p. 457.
- Lake Maxinkuckee. a physical and biological survey by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. [Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford, printer]1920. url p. 319.
- Lake Maxinkuckee: a physical and biological survey / by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. Indianapolis: Dept. of Conservation, 1920. url p. 319, p. 457.
- Manual of the flowering plants of Iowa. [Lamoni, Iowa]Privately published, 1899. url .
- Minnesota botanical studies. Minneapolis, Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. url p. 389, p. 389, p. 748, p. 748.
- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1965 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 48.
- National Arboretum contribution. Washington, D.C.: The Arboretum: 1953- url p. 21.
- Notes on the Cruciferae of the Cayuga flora. [Ithaca, N. Y.]Cornell Univ., Dept. of Botany, 1912. url .
- Novon a journal of botanical nomenclature from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 13 2003 St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, url p. 384.
- Pamphlets on silviculture. [1899- url p. 22.
- Phytogeography of Nebraska. 1. General survey by Roscoe Pound and Frederic E. Clements. Lincoln, Neb.Published by the Seminar1900 url p. 419, p. 71.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 295.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 133, p. 31, p. 38, p. 47, p. 49, p. 57, p. 58, p. 59, p. 63, p. 71, p. 85.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 528.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 528.
- Plants of Iowa; a preliminary list of the native and introduced plants of the state, not under cultivation; comp. by Wesley Greene, secretary. Des Moines, Bishard brothers, printers, 1907. url p. 173, p. 173.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 154.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 126, p. 212, p. 64.
- Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Davenport, Ia., Academy of Natural Sciences [etc.] url p. 284, p. 284.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- Report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904-1916. url p. 168.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url p. 102, p. 166.
- Reports of the Survey. Botanical series. Minneapolis [etc.]1892- url p. 266, p. 389, p. 680, p. 681, p. 748.
- Rock River area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, Natural History Survey Division, in conjunction with State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, IL: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1996- url p. 123, p. 52.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 90.
- Studies in natural history. Iowa City, Ia. url p. 197, p. 28.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 12, p. 14, p. 14, p. 14, p. 20, p. 21, p. 61, p. 64, p. 72, p. 76.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url p. 100, p. 39.
- The Asa Gray bulletin. 1 1952 Ann Arbor, Mich. url , p. 313.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 65 1951 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 16, p. 342, p. 343, p. 465, p. 553, p. 76.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 218.
- The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS. Cedar Falls, Iowa: The Academy, 1988- url p. 109, p. 136, p. 177.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley: a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River / by Conway MacMillan. Minneapolis: Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 1892. url p. 266, p. 680, p. 681, p. 765.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota valley; a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota river. Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892 url p. 266, p. 680, p. 681, p. 765.
- The Natural history of the Toronto Region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. -- Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url .
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url , , p. 293, p. 315.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 113.
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 109, p. 136.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 48 1969 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 558.
- The miscellaneous botanical works of Robert Brown vol. II, containing III. systematic memoirs, and IV. contributions to systematic works. London: Published for the Ray Society by R. Hardwicke, 1867. url .
- The natural history of the Toronto region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 119.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 260, p. 282, p. 439, p. 508.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url , , .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 463.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 463.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 104, p. 109, p. 167, p. 167, p. 180, p. 185, p. 202, p. 218, p. 221, p. 298, p. 46, p. 63, p. 64.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 109, p. 109, p. 109.
- Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: W.Y. Morgan, 1903- url p. 193.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 47, p. 92.
- Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences. Baltimore: The Academy, 1901- url p. 58.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 81.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 30.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 16, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 7 providers.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 25, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2648392
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-22678
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13741999
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:278084-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 454185
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 22678
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 278084-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBRA06060
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARCA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21893
- "Arabis". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 113. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 277.540 meters (910.564 feet), Standard Deviation = 169.530 based on 706 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]