The Acanthaceae are mostly herbs or shrubs comprising about 250 genera and 2,500 species, including twining forms. The leaves are simple , opposite and decussate; stipules are lacking. The flowers are bisexual , zygomorphic, and usually are associated with conspicuous , often brightly colored bracts. The calyx is usually deeply 4-5 lobed or sometimes is highly reduced with more numerous minute teeth. The corolla is sympetalous , usually 5-merous, mostly zygomorphic, and commonly 2 lipped. The androecium usually consists of 4 didynamous stamens or only 2 stamens adnate to the corolla tube or epigynous zone, alternate with the lobes . The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 carpels, a single style, and a superior ovary with 2 locules, each with usually 2-10 axile ovules in one or two collateral vertical tiers . An annular nectary disk is usually found around the base of the ovary. The fruit is commonly an elastically dehiscent loculicidal capsule. The seed stalk or funiculus of each seed is modified into a hook shaped jaculator or retinaculum that functions in flinging out the seeds during dehiscence. -- Gerald Carr.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lamianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Aphelandra
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. aurantiaca (Fiery Spike) · A. aurantiaca var. roezlii (Fiery Spike) · A. mirabilis (Two-Coloured Balm Plant) · A. sinclairiana (Coral Aphelandra) · A. squarrosa (Zebra Plant) · A. tetragona (Red Aphelandra)
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- Bulletin of miscellaneous information. Additional Series. Royal Gardens, Kew. 4 1900 [Kew, Surrey: Royal Botanic Gardens], 1898-1936; url p. 37.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture: comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with ge by L.H. Bailey, assisted by Wilhelm Miller and many expert cultivators and botanists, illustrated with two thousand eight hundred original engravings. New York: Macmillan, 1906, c1900-02. url p. 75.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 708.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 110, p. 24, p. 372, p. 420, p. 491, p. 495.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , p. 42, p. 444, p. 573, p. 595, p. 653, p. 749, p. 750, p. 86.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 308.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.