, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
, deciduous or semi-evergreen
, dioecious or monoecious. Branchlets
, never corky or winged
. Stipules 2, free
, leaving a short transverse
on each side of the leaf base
. Leaves alternate, distichous or in several ranks
to leathery, margin
serrate or entire. Flowers appearing at same time as leaves, unisexual
. Male inflorescences cymes. Female inflorescences 1-flowered. Male flowers: perianth 4- or 5-parted, tepals imbricate. Ovary absent or inconspicuous and hair-shaped. Stamens equal in number to tepals; filaments
or apically incurved
. Female flowers: perianth 4- or 5-parted, tepals narrow and ± imbricate. Drupes ovoid
to ± globose
; endocarp bony. Seed with thin endosperm or not; embryo involute
; cotyledons narrow.
About five species: tropical and subtropical areas of E Asia, Madagascar, Mexico, and Pacific Islands; two species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: J.-F.Leroy Publication
. Mus. Natl. Hist.
Nat. s?r. 2, 18: 122, in obs. 1946
Basionym author: (Kurz)
Members of the genus Aphananthe
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Chang Siushih. 1998. Cannaboideae. In: Chang Siushih & Wu Chengyih, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 23(1): 220224.
- Fu Likuo, Chen Chiajui & Tang Yancheng. 1998. Ulmaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 334, 413.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10813196
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 836929-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3937177
- Zhengyi Wu, Zhe-Kun Zhou & Bruce Bartholomew "Cannabaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 74. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Aphananthe". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 11. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]