Common Names in Spanish:
Burillo, Cabeza De Mono, Cabeza De Negro, Erizo, Heriso, Malagano, Papachote, Peine De Mico
, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Aubl. Publication
: Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 538, t.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 04-May-2001
Members of the genus Apeiba
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A descriptive catalogue of useful fiber plants of the world: including the structural and economic classifications of fibers / by Charles Richards Dodge. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1897. url p. 62.
- A naturalist in Brazil; the record of a year's observation of her flora, her fauna, and her people, by Konrad Guenther. .. translated by Bernard Miall. .. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931. url p. 391.
- A year of Costa Rican natural history, by Amelia Smith Calvert. .. and Philip Powell Calvert. .. with maps and illustrations. New York, The Macmillan company, 1917. url p. 429, p. 545.
- Archivos. Rio de JaneiroImprensa Nacional url p. 297, p. 43.
- Biologia centrali-americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. London, Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter and Dulau & co., 1879-88. url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 23 1920-1926 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 1673, p. 19, p. 250, p. 738.
- Flora of Peru: Sapindageae / by J. Francis Macbride. 13 1956 Chicago, [Ill.]: Field Museum of Natural History,  url p. 414, p. 427.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 433.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 78 1927 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 21, p. 9.
- The flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, by Paul C. Standley. City of Washington, The Smithsonian Institution, 1927. url p. 23.
- Trees and shrubs of Mexico / By Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1920-1926. url p. 1673, p. 738.
- Feng Kuo-mei. 1984. Malvaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 1-102.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 29, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647557
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21523
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13741302
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:833270-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3680
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 833270-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 415449