Plants usually turf-forming or loosely cespitose, green distally and brown proximally. Stems 0.2-4(-10) cm, irregularly branching, mostly rounded-pentagonal but occasionally rounded-triangular in section
, hyalodermis usually absent, sclerodermis sometimes present, central strand usually present, radiculose
, occasionally bare or tomentose
, axillary hairs
, sometimes the proximal
1-3 cells brownish. Stem leaves usually appressed
and often contorted when dry, spreading
when wet, ovoid
to lanceolate or lingulate
, often channeled
, rarely concave
, mostly ca.
1.5-3.5 mm; base
, occasionally sheathing
the stem; margins
usually recurved proximally, occasionally plane
, or involute
, entire or sometimes dentate
distally, occasionally bordered
by thick-walled or elongate
cells or cells in one or more layers; apex rounded-obtuse to more commonly narrowly acute; costa ending a few cells before the apex to short-excurrent or long-excurrent as an awn
, sometimes with photosynthetic outgrowths adaxially, adaxial
or elongate in usually 2-4 rows
, costa in medial
section usually with a differentiated epidermis
adaxially or on both sides, 1 or 2 stereid
, the abaxial
stereid band usually rounded
, guide cells in 1(-3) layers, hydroid
occasionally present (sometimes multiple
) ; basal laminal
cells usually differentiated, smooth
or lightly papillose
, rectangular, generally filling the base medially, sometimes rising marginally in a V shape
, occasionally bulging, usually slightly wider than the distal laminal cells; distal laminal cells usually subquadrate
, occasionally hexagonal or rarely short-rectangular or rhomboid
, mostly small, ca. 9-16 mm wide, 1:1, papillae usually present over the distal laminal cells, solid or occasionally hollow, usually 2-fid but occasionally simple
, sometimes flattened or compound
, cell walls
mostly evenly thickened, superficially flat to bulging, sometimes bulging only adaxially, usually in one layer. Specialized asexual
reproduction common, by multicellular
(rarely 1-cellular) gemmae borne on stalks
in the leaf axils
or more seldom on leaves, or by obovoid
brood bodies borne on rhizoids in the soil, rarely by reduced or fragile leaves or fragile stems. Sexual condition dioicous or monoicous, occasionally rhizautoicous
; perigonia and perichaetia terminal
or occasionally lateral
on short branchlets
. Perigoniate plants occasionally smaller than the perichaetiate, seldom nearly stemless and budlike. Perichaetial leaves often sheathing in the basal portion and then with elongate-rhomboid cells basally, usually larger than the cauline leaves, long-oval to long-lanceolate. Sporophytes often in transformation
series of peristome reduction and seta shortening. Seta usually solitary, elongate, often twisted. Capsule stegocarpous
ovoid to cylindric
, neck usually small or nearly absent; annulus little differentiated or of 1-2 rows of vesiculose
cells, occasionally revoluble
or deciduous in pieces
; operculum short-conic to short-rostrate, cells in straight or oblique
rows; peristome teeth occasionally absent, more usually erect
or twisted usually dextrose (counter clockwise
), yellow, orange, or red, rudimentary
or consisting of 16 mostly twice cleft
, spiculose, striate
, or papillose, lanceolate teeth, or 32 linear
, usually densely spiculose filiform divisions, the basal membrane
usually low or absent, occasionally very high and trabeculate
. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, occasionally mitrate, rarely papillose. Spores usually ca. 10-15 µm, occasionally much larger. Laminal KOH color reaction yellow to orange-red or red in 2% KOH solution.
Genera ca. 77, species ca. 1450 (40 genera, 165 species in the flora ) : worldwide, characteristic of harsh habitats .
This is the largest family of the mosses in number of genera. Its taxonomy is commonly considered difficult because of the obscure areolation , small size of the plants , and apparent phenotypic variation . A recent generic-level revision by R. H. Zander (1993) pulled together the scattered literature and de-emphasized sporophytic characters, allowing easier identification of sterile plants. The phylogenetic scheme adopted here approximates that of Zander (1993) as modified by Zander (2006) except that Gymnostomiella and Luisierella are moved from the Barbuloideae to the Pottioideae, in part for convenience in identification. The large number of anatomical characters available permits better identification of previously poorly understood taxa. The color tests refer to the reaction of the cell walls of the distal laminal areolation to 2% potassium hydroxide solution, which may require examination under the compound microscope for determination. Sectioning of leaf and stem is necessary and is described by Zander (1993) . A twisted peristome, strongly differentiated costal anatomy , and the complexly papillose distal laminal cells are characteristic of this mostly acrocarpous family, commonly found in harsh environments.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Anictangium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A Flora of Berwick-upon-Tweed. By George Johnston, M.D. Edinburgh, J. Carfrae & Son; [etc., etc., ]1829-31. url p. 53.
- A manual of the mosses of western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pa., The Author, Press of the City Mission Publishing Company, 1913. url .
- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 713.
- A popular history of British mosses: comprising a general account of their structure, fructification, arrangement, and general distribution / By Robert M. Stark. London, L. Reeve, 1854. url p. 43.
- Boston journal of natural history. 5 1845 - 18 Boston, Boston Society of Natural History. url p. 179.
- Catalogue of Canadian plants. .. Montreal [etc.]1883-1902. url , p. 279, p. 78.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Dublin and Wicklow / by David Moore and A. G. More. Dublin: Wesley and Sons, 1878 url p. 241.
- Contributions towards a fauna and flora of the county of Cork, read at the meeting of the British association held at Cork in the year 1843. The Vertebrata by Dr. Harvey. The Mollusca, Crustacea and Echinodermata by J.D. Humphreys. The flora by Dr. Power. (Published by the Cuvierian society of Cork) London, J. Van Voorst, 1845. url p. 84.
- General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis / London: Printed by W. Bulmer, 1814. url p. 593.
- Journal of botany: being a second series of the Botanical miscellany. 3 1841 London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman; Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1834-1842. url p. 376, p. 89.
- Mosses of Guatemala / Edwin B. Bartram. 25 1949 [Chicago]Chicago National History Museum,  url figure 105 , p. 232, p. 431.
- Muscologia britannica containing the mosses of Great Britain and Ireland systematically arranged and described with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species / by William Jackson Hooker and Thomas Taylor. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1827. url , p. 260, p. 27, p. 9.
- Muscologia britannica; containing the mosses of Great Britain & Ireland, systematically arranged and described; with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species. By William Jackson Hooker and Thomas Taylor. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1818. url p. 14.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 196.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1824-36. url p. 11, p. 69.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url p. 166, p. 173.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 143, p. 292, p. 645, p. 998.
- The botany of the Eastern Borders: with the popular names and uses of the plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have been associated with them / by George Johnston. London: J. Van Voorst, 1853. url p. 260.
- The botany of the eastern borders, with the popular names and uses of the plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have been associated with them. London, J. Van Voorst, 1853. url .
- The flora of Essex County, Massachusetts. Salem, Essex Institute, 1880. url .
- The flora of the parish of Halifax, by William B. Crump, & Charles Crossland. [Halifax]Halifax Scientific Society, 1904. url p. 174.
- Werner, O., R. M. Ros, M. J. Cano, and J. Guerra. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Pottiaceae (Musci) based on chloroplast rps4 sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 243: 147-164.
- Zander, R. H. 1982. Aspects of the taxonomy of the Pottiaceae. Beih. Nov. Hedw. 71: 225-227.
- Zander, R. H. 1993. Genera of the Pottiaceae: Mosses of harsh environments. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 32.
- Zander, R. H. 2006. The Pottiaceae s.str. as an evolutionary Lazarus taxon. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 100: 581-602.