Common Names in English:
Buttercup Anemone, Yellow Wood Anemone, Yellow Woodland Anemone, Yellow Woodland Thimble-Weed
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from rhizomes, caudices, or tubers. Leaves basal, simple
. Leaf blade
or undivided, reniform
to obtriangular or lanceolate, margins
entire or variously toothed
. Inflorescences terminal
, 2-9-flowered cymes or umbels, or flowers solitary, to 60 cm; involucres present, often with primary
inflorescences, and secondary and tertiary involucres subtending inflorescence branches or single flowers (primary, secondary, and tertiary involucres appearing to be in tiers
), involucral bracts
2-7(-9), leaflike or sepaloid
from or close to flowers. Flowers bisexual
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, 4-20(-27), white, purple, blue, green, yellow, pink, or red, plane
, 3.5-40 mm; petals usually absent (present in A. patens ), distinct
, plane, obovate to elliptic
, 1.5-2 mm; nectary
present; stamens 10-200; filaments
or somewhat broadened at base
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils many, simple; ovule 1 per pistil; style present. Fruits achenes, aggregate, sessile or stalked
, sides not veined; beak
(persistent style) present, sometimes rudimentary
, terminal, straight or curved
, to 40(-50) mm, sometimes plumose
=7 or 8.
Species ca. 150: nearly worldwide, primarily in cooler temperate and arctic regions.
The taxonomy of Anemone continues to be problematic. Anemone occidentalis and A. patens var. multifida (the first two taxa in this treatment) are frequently placed in the genus Pulsatilla Miller on the basis of the long plumose achene beaks, and A. acutiloba and A. americana (the last two taxa in this treatment) in the genus Hepatica Miller, primarily on the basis of the involucre immediately subtending the flower and the lobed, persistent leaves. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Anemone in the broad sense, however, indicate that both Pulsatilla and Hepatica should be subsumed within Anemone. While traditional morphologic characters are useful in distinguishing between Pulsatilla and Hepatica species, respectively, many other morphologic and molecular attributes are shared with Anemone, strongly suggesting that these genera should be united (S. B . Hoot et al. 1994). In addition, a number of genera that have been recognized primarily on a cytotaxonomic basis (e.g. , Anemonastrum, Anemonidium, Anemonoides, and Jurtsevia ) are reduced to synonymy here. Some North American species of Anemone are closely related to plants in Europe, Asia, and South America and continue to be recognized at different ranks . For example, Anemone patens Linnaeus var. multifida (a species included in this treatment) was called Pulsatilla multifida (Pritzel) Juzepczuk for the former Soviet Union by S. V. Juzepczuk (1970) and Pulsatilla patens (Linnaeus) Miller var. multifida (Pritzel) Li S.H. & Huang Y. H. for China by Wang W.-T. (1980). Moreover, interspecific hybridization among some sympatric or nearly sympatric North American species also contributes to the confusion (see N. L. Britton 1891; C. L. Hitchcock et al. 1955-1969, vol. 2; R. S. Mitchell and J. K . Dean 1982). Additional analyses (e.g., G. Boraiah and M. Heimburger 1964; M. Heimburger 1959; C. Joseph and M. Heimburger 1966; and C. S. Keener et al. 1995) may prove to be helpful in resolving the taxonomy within this morphologically diverse genus.
Protoanemonin, an irritating acrid oil , is an enzymatic breakdown product of the glycoside ranunculin and is found in many species of Anemone. While protoanemonin can cause severe topical and gastrointestinal irritation, it is unstable and changes into harmless anemonin when plants are dried (N. J. Turner and A. F. Szczawinski 1991).
A caudex , as the term is used here, is the "woody," perennating base of an aerial shoot (inflorescences and basal leaves ). The word tuber refers to a swollen, more or less vertical underground stem. The aerial shoots arise from the apex of either of those persistent structures. Rhizome, as the term is used here, refers to an underground, usually horizontal stem (more or less vertical in Anemone piperi ), that is nearly uniform in diameter (about 1-4 mm diam., depending on the species) along its length . Aerial shoots arise directly from nodes at or near the apex of the rhizome.
Many species of Anemone have only one type of underground stem. Some species, however, have both rhizomes and caudices. In such cases the aerial shoots arise from the apex of a caudex attached to the rhizome. Some other species sometimes have both tubers and rhizomes. In those, one or more horizontal rhizomes arise near the apex of the tuber; the aerial shoots arise from the apex of the tuber.
Proportions given in the key for the middle lobes of basal leaves are calculated as follows: measure length of lobe from apex to a line connecting bases of sinuses; and measure total length of blade from leaf apex to summit of petiole .
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,287 meters (0 to 4,222 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.6 • Maximum pH: 5.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Adans., 1763, nom. cons.
- boutons d'or, buttercups
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Windflower [etymology not clear: probably Greek anemos, wind; possibly from Naaman, Semitic name for Adonis, whose blood, according to myth, produced Anemone coronaria ]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Anemone ranunculoides L.
- Specific epithet: ranunculoides - L.
- Subgenus: nom ()
- Genus: Anemone () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Windflower [etymology not clear: probably Greek anemos, wind; possibly from Naaman, Semitic name for Adonis, whose blood, according to myth, produced Anemone coronaria ]
- Tribe: Anemoneae ()
- Subfamily: Ranunculoideae ()
- Family: Ranunculaceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - boutons d'or, buttercups
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Anemonoides ranunculoides (L.) Holub
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 541 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Anemone
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 164 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. apennina (Apennine Anemone) · A. apennina var. albiflora (Apennine Anemone) · A. berlandieri (Southern Thimble-Weed) · A. biarmiensis (Windflower) · A. blanda (Grecian Windflower) · A. blanda 'Blue Shades' (Blue Shades Anemone) · A. blanda 'Blue Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Charmer' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Pink Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Radar' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Rosea' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Violet Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'White Splendour' (Anemone) · A. canadensis (Canada Anemone) · A. caroliniana (Carolina Anemone) · A. caroliniana var. heterophylla (Carolina Anemone) · A. coronaria (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Blue Poppy' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Hollandia' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Lord Lieutenant' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mona Lisa Red' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mount Everest' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mr. Fokker' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'St. Brigid' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Sylphide' (Ylphide Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Admiral' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Bride' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Governor' (Grecian Windflower) · A. crispa (Parlsey Leaf Anemone) · A. cylindrica (Candle Anemone) · A. deltoidea (Columbia Windflower) · A. drummondii (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii drummondii (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii heimburgeri (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii subsp. heimburgeri (Heimburger's Anemone) · A. edwardsiana (Edwards Plateau Thimbleweed) · A. edwardsiana var. edwardsiana (Edwards Plateau Thimbleweed) · A. edwardsiana var. petraea (Edge Falls Anemone) · A. hortensis (Anemone) · A. hupehensis (Hupeh Thimble-Weed) · A. hupehensis (Lemoine) Lemoine var. japonica (Thunb.) Bowles & Stearn 'Prinz Hei (Japanese Thimbleweed) · A. hupehensis var. japonica (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis var. japonica 'Bressingham Glow' (Bressingham Glow Windflower) · A. hupehensis 'Alba' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Crispa' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Praecox' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'September Charm' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Splendens' (Splendens Japanese Anemone) · A. japonica (Queen Charlotte Windflower) · A. lancifolia (Lance-Leaved Anemone) · A. leveillei (Windflower) · A. lithophila (Little Belt Mountain Thimble-Weed) · A. lyallii (Little Mountain Thimbleweed) · A. multiceps (Porcupine River Thimble-Weed) · A. multifida (Cut-Leaved Anemone) · A. multifida var. hirsuta (Pacific Anemone) · A. multifida var. hudsoniana (Hudson's Anemone) · A. multifida var. multifida (Cut-Leaf Anemone) · A. multifida var. richardsiana (Richards' Anemone) · A. multifida var. sansonii (Sanson's Anemone) · A. multifida var. saxicola (Cutleaf Anemone) · A. multifida var. stylosa (Cutleaf Anemone) · A. multifida 'Major' (Major Cut-Leaved Anemone Anemone Multifida) · A. multifida 'Rubra' (Cut-Leaved Anemone) · A. narcissiflora (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora interior var. interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora narcissiflora (Narcissus Thimble-Weed) · A. narcissiflora var. monantha (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora var. villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora zephyra (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora zephyra var. zephyra (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. alaskana (Alaskan Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. sibirica (Sibirian Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. zephyra (Zephyr Anemone) · A. nemerosa (European Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa (European Thimble-Weed) · A. nemorosa var. nemorosa (European Thimbleweed) · A. nemorosa × ranunculoides (European Thimbleweed) · A. nemorosa 'Alba Plena' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Allenii' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Blue Bonnet' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Blue Eyes' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Bowles Purple' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Caerulea' (Caerulea Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Dee Day' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Gigantea Rubra' (Wood Anemone 'gigantea Rubra') · A. nemorosa 'Hakumane Senjuizaki' (Wood Anemone 'hakumane Senjuizaki') · A. nemorosa 'Kassari Kirju' (Wood Anemone 'kassari Kirju') · A. nemorosa 'Lychette' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Mart's Blue' (Mart's Blue Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Robinsoniana' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Rosea' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Royal Blue' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Vestal' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Viridiflora' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Westwell Pink' (Wood Anemone)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A compendium of the English flora. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 1836. url p. 116.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 3.
- A first report on the relations between climates and crops. By Cleveland Abbe. Washington [D.C.]: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 204.
- A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system. By George Don. London, Printed for C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1831-38. url p. 19.
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L. H. Pammel. 1911 Cedar Rapids, Ia.: The Torch Press, 1910-11. url p. 845.
- A monograph of the British Uredineae and Ustilagineae, with an account of their biology including the methods of observing the germination of their spores and of their experimental culture. London, Paul, Trench & Co., 1889. url .
- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 725.
- A new London flora; or, Handbook to the botanical localities of the metropolitan districts. Compiled from the latest authorities, and from personal observations. London, Hardwick and Bogue, 1877. url p. 175.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 143.
- A report on the progress of vegetable physiology during the year 1837. Tr. from the German by William Francis. London, Taylor, 1839. url p. 151.
- A systematic arrangement of British plants / by W. Withering; corrected and condensed; preceded by instructions adapted for persons commencing the study of botany; accompanied with figures by William MacGillivray. London: Printed for Adam Scott, 1848. url p. 235.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 106, p. 12, p. 132, p. 14, p. 149, p. 177, p. 22, p. 220, p. 30, p. 33, p. 449, p. 470, p. 524, p. 589, p. 63, p. 66, p. 67, p. 8, p. 87, p. 91, p. 94.
- Alien flora of Britain. London, West, Newman, 1905. url p. 3.
- Alpine flowers for English gardens / by W. Robinson. London: Murray, 1879. url p. 175.
- Alpine flowers for gardens: rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs / by W. Robinson. London: John Murray, 1903. url p. 162.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 22, p. 360.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 224.
- Archiv for mathematik og naturvidenskab. Oslo [etc.]O. Norlis [etc.] url p. 312.
- Botanical appendix to Captain Franklin's narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea by John Richardson. [London?: s.n.], 1823 url .
- Botanisk tidsskrift / utgivet af den Botaniske forening i København. København: G.E.C. Gads Forlag, 1866-1981. url , p. 335, p. 346.
- Botaniska notiser. Upsala: Wahlstro?m, 1857-c1980. url p. 127, p. 70.
- Botany for ladies; or, A popular introduction to the natural system of plants, according to the classification of De Candolle. By Mrs. Loudon. London, J. Murray, 1842. url p. 20.
- British moths and their transformations. London: W. Smith, 1843-45. url , p. 189.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1907 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 152.
- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 44.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 80.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 1 1898 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 138.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 217, p. 272.
- Catalogue of Canadian plants. .. Montreal [etc.]1883-1902. url p. 13, p. 13.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 177, p. 215, p. 492.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 177, p. 215.
- Chronological history of plants: man's record of his own existence illustrated through their names, uses, and companionship. Boston, Little, Brown & company, 1879. url .
- Commercial gardening, a practical & scientific treatise for market gardeners, market growers, fruit, flower & vegetable growers, nurserymen, etc. By many practical specialists under the editorship of John Weathers. London, The Gresham publishing company, 1913. url p. 7.
- Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College. New York: Columbia College, 1886-1896. url p. 384.
- Contributions to the flora of Mentone, and to a winter flora of the Riviera, including the coast from Marseilles to Genoa, by J. Traherne Moggridge. .. London: L. Reeve, 1871. url p. 215, p. 216.
- Cryptogamic plants of the USSR. (Flora sporovykh rastenii SSSR) Translated from Russian. Jerusalem[Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 19 - url p. 146, p. 422.
- Cultures of Uredineae 1899-1921. n.p., n.d. url p. 71.
- Cybele Britannica: or British Plants and their geographical relations. London, 1847-59. url p. 106, p. 373, p. 75, p. 87, p. 88.
- Danish fungi as represented in the herbarium of E. Rostrup / revised by J. Lind. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske boghandel, 1913. url p. 318, p. 50, p. 52, p. 59.
- Descriptive notes on the topography and vegetation of some localities visited by the excursion in Denmark arranged for the members of l'Association internationale des botanistes, June 22nd-July 3rd, 1 Ed. by the Dansk botanisk forening. København, Dansk botanisk forenings forlag, 1913. url p. 20.
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url , , , , .
- Don, G. A general history of the dichlamydeous plants: comprising complete descriptions of the different orders...the whole arranged according to the natural system /by George Don. 1 1831 London: J.G. and F. Rivington, 1831-1838. url p. 18, p. 19.
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url p. 37.
- Everyday objects; or, Picturesque aspects of natural history. .. London, W.P. Nimmo, 1876. url p. 159.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 1053, p. 1056, p. 1110.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url , p. 184.
- Florigraphia Britannica; or, Engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain. London, Groombridge, 1857. url .
- Florigraphia britannica, or, Engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain / by Richard Deakin. London: Groombridge, 1857. url .
- Flowering plants of the Riviera: a sescriptive account of 1800 of the more interesting species / by H. Stuart Thompson; with an introduction on Riviera vegetation by A. G. Tansley London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1914. url p. 21.
- Flowers of the field. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge[186-?] url p. 8.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 181, p. 188, p. 208, p. 236, p. 237.
- Gardening for amateurs; a simple, complete, and practical guide for garden lovers, edited by H. H. Thomas. Illustrated by twenty-four coloured plates and many hundreds of photographs and sketches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls company,  url p. 603.
- Genesee farmer. Rochester, N.Y.: B.F. Smith & Co., [1845-1865] url p. 269.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 85.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 106.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url .
- Handbook of hardy herbaceous and alpine flowers. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1871. url p. 6.
- Handbook of the British flora: a description of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to, or naturalised in, the British Isles. For the use of beginners and amateurs. By George Bentham. London, L. Reeve & Co., ltd., 1918. url p. 4.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url p. 168, p. 83.
- How to find and name wild flowers; being a new method of observing and identifying upwards of 1, 200 species of flowering plants in the British isles; with an introduction by F.E. hulme. .. illustrated by the author, and with four autochrome plates by H. Essenhigh Corke. .. London, Cassell[1906-1930] url p. 176.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 367, p. 529, p. 581.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 193, p. 217.
- Journal of the International Garden Club. New York, International garden club. url p. 104.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 64.
- Journal of the proceedings of the Linnean Society. London: The Society, 1857-1864. url p. xvi.
- Landmarks of botanical history, a study of certain epochs in the development of the science of botany. Washington, Smithsonian Inst., 1909- url p. 298.
- Landmarks of botanical history; a study of certain epochs in the development of the science of botany. Part I.--Prior to 1562 A. D. Washington, Smithsonian institution, 1909. url .
- Lawns and gardens. How to plant and beautify the home lot, the pleasure ground and garden, by N. Jönsson-Rose. With numerous plans and illustrations by the author. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1897. url p. 110.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url p. 100.
- Loddiges, C. L. The botanical cabinet: consisting of coloured delineations of plants, from all countries, with a short account of each, directions for management, &c, &c /by Conrad Loddiges & Sons; the plates by George Cooke... 6 1821 London: John & Arthur Arch. .., 1817-1833. url , .
- My hundred Swiss flowers: with a short account of Swiss ferns / by Mary A. Pratten. London: W. H. Allen, 1887. url p. 141.
- Narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1819, 20, 21, and 22 by John Franklin. London: J. Murray, 1823. url .
- New illustrated encyclopedia of gardening, unabridged. Edited by T.H. Everett, with contributions from twenty horticulturists and authorities in the United States and Canada. New York, Greystone Press[1964-] url p. 113.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 9 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 403, p. 431, p. 439.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 3 1904 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 35.
- Oecology of plants: an introduction to the study of plant-communities / by Eug. Warming; assisted by Martin Vahl; prepared for publication in English by Percy Groom and Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. url p. 332.
- Oecology of plants; an introduction to the study of plant-communities, by Eug. Warming, assisted by Martin Vahl. Prepared for publication in English by Percy Groom and Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. url p. 332.
- Organography of plants, especially of the archegoniatae and spermaphyta, ed. by Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford, Clar. Press, 1900-5. url p. 250, p. 657.
- Prehistoric Europe: a geological sketch / London: Edward Stanford, 1881. url p. 524.
- Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-18. Ottawa, F. A. Acland, Printer to the King, 1919- url .
- Reports and papers on botany. London: Printed for the Ray society, 1846-49. url p. 427.
- Researches about atmospheric phenomena. By Thomas Forster. London: Printed for Harding, Mavor, and Lepard, 1823. url p. 372.
- Rock gardening for amateurs, by H. H. Thomas assisted by S. Arnott; beautifully illustrated with twelve direct colour photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke, sixty-four half-tone plates and numerous sketches. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1914. url p. 267.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 697.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 54 1910 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 298.
- Sub-alpine plants: or, Flowers of the Swiss woods and meadows / by H. Stuart Thompson; with 33 coloured plates (168 figures) by George Flemwell. London: Dutton, 1912. url p. 50.
- Sub-alpine plants: or, flowers of the Swiss woods and meadows / [London]: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1912. url .
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 14.
- That rock-garden of ours; with 50 illustrations by the author. Phil.Jacobs, [1909?] url p. 71.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 100, p. 100, p. 100, p. 237, p. 237, p. 377, p. 377, p. 579, p. 579, p. 581, p. 581, p. 68, p. v.
- The Book of gardening; a handbook of horticulture. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. url .
- The British rust fungi (Uredinales) their biology and classification, Cambridge, University Press, 1913. url .
- The Cottage gardener. [London: W.S. Orr, url , p. 219, p. 51.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, [1828-30] url p. 38, p. 38, p. 38.
- The English flower garden and home grounds; design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture, by W. Robinson. .. Illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1900. url p. 427.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 36, p. 74.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 157.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , p. 13, p. 141, p. 141, p. 159, p. 188, p. 194, p. 199, p. 206, p. 213, p. 225, p. 226, p. 234, p. 236, p. 236, p. 242, p. 244, p. 265, p. 271, p. 274, p. 285, p. 286, p. 287, p. 295, p. 296, p. 300, p. 320, p. 326, p. 339, p. 341, p. 346, p. 370, p. 379, p. 380, p. 381, p. 390, p. 398, p. 399, p. 401, p. 406, p. 409, p. 412, p. 42, p. 422, p. 424, p. 425, p. 426, p. 427, p. 428, p. 430, p. 449, p. 466, p. 482, p. 74, p. 84, p. 87.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 1053, p. 1465, p. 454, p. 549.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , p. 104, p. 141, p. 190, p. 196, p. 208, p. 21, p. 218, p. 232, p. 234, p. 238, p. 243, p. 258, p. 270, p. 290, p. 342, p. 362, p. 376, p. 387, p. 4, p. 418, p. 419, p. 419, p. 45, p. 470, p. 503, p. 513, p. 541, p. 542, p. 559, p. 564, p. 566, p. 591, p. 594, p. 694, p. 745, p. 795, p. 9.
- The Glasgow naturalist. Glasgow, Andersonian Naturalists of Glasgow. url p. 101.
- The Horticulturist and journal of rural art and rural taste. Albany, N.Y.: Luthur Tucker, 1846/1847-1875 url p. 190.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 376, p. 384, p. 390, p. 403, p. 439, p. 77.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 23, p. 391, p. 429, p. 8.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 63.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 41 1912-13 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 400.
- The Naturalist. 1894 [Doncaster: Yorkshire Naturalists' Union], 1874- url p. 87.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 287, p. 288, p. 294, p. 385, p. 408, p. 5, p. 503, p. 510, p. 594, p. 609.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 1088, p. 159, p. 536, p. 574, p. 655.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 637.
- The Victoria history of the County of Hertford / edited by William Page. London: Published for the University of London, Institute of Historical Research by Dawsons of Pall Mall,  url .
- The Victoria history of the county of Kent; ed. by William Page. London, Constable, 1908- url p. 50.
- The art & craft of garden making / Thomas H. Mawson. London: B.T. Batsford;  url p. 316.
- The book of bulbs, by S. Arnott, F. R. H. S. Together with an introductory chapter on the botany of bulbs by the editor [Harry Roberts] London and New York, J. Lane, 1901. url p. 13.
- The book of old-fashioned flowers and other plants which thrive in the open-air of England, London andJohn Lane, 1901. url .
- The book of the seasons: or, The calendar of nature / by William Howitt. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1842. url p. 120.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 152, p. 153.
- The continental element in the flora of south Sweden by Rikard Sterner. Stockholm: Centraltryckeriet, 1922. url p. 369.
- The cyclopædia; or, Universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and literature. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown [etc.], 1819. url p. 647.
- The differentiation and specificity of starches in relation to genera, species, etc.; stereochemistry applied to protoplasmic processes and products, and as a strictly scientific basis for the classification of plants and animals Washington, D.C.Carnegie institution of Washington1913 url p. 217, p. 272.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The fertilisation of flowers. Translated and edited by D'Arcy W. Thompson, with a preface by Charles Darwin. LondonMacmillan1883 url p. 656.
- The flora of Oxfordshire; being a topographical and historical account of the flowering plants and ferns found in the county, with sketches of the progress of Oxfordshire botany during the last three centuries, and London, Parker and Co., 1886. url .
- The flora of the Alps being a description of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to Switzerland; and of the Alpine species of the adjacent mountain districts of France, Italy, & Austria including the Pyrenees / by Alfred W. Bennett. London: J.C. Nimmo, 1896. url p. 4.
- The flora of the Alps: being a description of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to Switzerland; and of the alpine species of the adjacent mountain districts of France, Italy, & Austria including the Pyrenees / by Alfred W. Bennett. New York: Truslove & Comba, 1898. url p. 4.
- The flora of the Alps; being a description of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to Switzerland; and of the Alpine species of the adjacent mountain districts of France, Italy, & Austria including the Pyrenees, by Alfred W. Bennett. .. London, Nimmo, 1900. url p. 4.
- The florist, fruitist, and garden miscellany. London: Chapman and Hall, 1852- url p. 159.
- The gallery of nature and art; or, A tour through creation and science, LondonR. Wilks1818 url p. 224.
- The garden month by month; describing the appearance, color, dates of bloom, height and cultivation of all desirable, hardy herbaceous perennials for the formal or wild garden with additional lists of aquatics, vines, ferns, et by Mabel Cabot Sedgwick assisted by Robert Cameron with over two hundred half-tone engravings from photographs of growing plants, and a chart in colors. New York, F.A. Stokes Co.,  url .
- The journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1832-1936 url p. 361.
- The natural history of plants, their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution; from the German of the late Anton Kerner von Marilaun by F. W. Oliver. With the assistance of Lady Busk, and Mrs. M. F. Macdonald; with about two thousand orginal woodcut illustrations. London, Blackie, 1902. url p. 565, p. 795.
- The natural history of plants; their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution. From the German of Anton Kerner von Marilaun, by F.W. Oliver, with the assistance of Marian Busk and Mary F. Ewart. with about 2000 original woodcut illustrations and sixteen plates in colours. London, Blackie, 1896-1897. url p. 567.
- The new botanic garden, illustrated with one hundred and thirty-three plants, engraved by Sansom, from the original pictures, and coloured with the greatest exactness from drawings by Sydenham Edwards... London, J. Stockdale, 1812. url .
- The principles of plant-teratology. London, The Ray Society, 1915-1916. url .
- The rhododendron and "American plants.": A treatise on the culture, propagation, and species of the rhododendron;: with cultural notes upon other plants which thrive under like treatment, and descriptions of species and varieties;: with a New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1876, [c1871] url .
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1467.
- The student's flora of the British Islands / by J.D. Hooker. London: Macmillan, 1884. url p. 529.
- The twentieth century method; growing bulbs for winter and spring blooming, by Maurice Fuld. New York, The Home of Heather, Knight and Struck Company[c1914] url p. 55.
- The wild garden, or the naturalization and natural grouping of hardy exotic plants with a chapter on the garden of British wild flowers. London, J. Murray, 1894. url , .
- The wild garden: or, Our groves and gardens made beautiful by the naturalisation of hardy exotic plants; being one way onwards from the dark ages of flower gardening, with suggestions for the regeneration of the bare by W. Robinson; illustrated by Alfred Parsons. London: J. Murray; 1883. url p. 172.
- The wild garden; or, Our groves & shrubberies made beautiful. .. London, J. Murray, 1870. url .
- The wild garden; or, Our groves and gardens made beautiful by the naturalisation of hardy exotic plants. .. London, J. Murray;1883. url , .
- Through the fields with Linnæus; a chapter in Swedish history, by Mrs. Florence Caddy. London, Longmans, Green, and co., 1887. url p. 339.
- Tilton's journal of horticulture and florist's companion. Boston: J.E. Tilton and Co., 1869-1871. url p. 7.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 123, p. 13.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 122, p. 44.
- Transactions of the Botanical Society. Edinburgh: Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1841-1891. url p. 175.
- Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. London: Gurney & Jackson, 1879- url .
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glasgow. Glasgow, The Society. url .
- Travels in the central Caucasus and Bashan; including visits to Ararat and Tabreez and ascents of Kazbek and Elbruz. By Douglas W. Freshfield. London: Longmans, Green, & co., 1869. url p. 504.
- Wild flowers. London: Pott, Young & Co.,  url p. 28.
- Window gardening. Devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants, for indoor use and parlor decoration. Ed. by Henry T. Williams. New York, H. T. Williams, 1878. url p. 229, p. 229.
- Window gardening: devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants for indoor use and parlor decoration / edited by Henry T. Williams. New York: H.T. Williams, 1872. url p. 229.
- Fernald, M. L. 1928b. The North American species of Anemone & Anemonanthea. Rhodora 30: 180-188.
- Frodin, D.G. 1964. A Preliminary Revision of the Section Anemonanthea of Anemone in Eastern North America, with Special Reference to the Southern Appalachian Mountains. M.S. thesis. University of Tennessee. Hoot, S. B., A. A. Reznicek, and J. D. Palmer. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) based on morphology and chloroplast DNA. Syst. Bot. 19: 169-200.
- Wang,W.-T. 1980. Anemone In: W.-T. Wang, ed. 1980. Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae. Vol. 28, pp. 1-56.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2663276
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-181878
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:708596-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3400
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 181878
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDRAN040M0
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 167237
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Bryan E. Dutton, Carl S. Keener & Bruce A. Ford "Anemone". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 187.100 meters (613.845 feet), Standard Deviation = 206.390 based on 1,885 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]