Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Cut-Leaved Anemone, Cut-Leaf Anemone, Cutleaf Anemone, Hudson Bay Anemone, Pacific Anemone, Red Windflower
Common Names in French:
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from rhizomes, caudices, or tubers. Leaves basal, simple
. Leaf blade
or undivided, reniform
to obtriangular or lanceolate, margins
entire or variously toothed
. Inflorescences terminal
, 2-9-flowered cymes or umbels, or flowers solitary, to 60 cm; involucres present, often with primary
inflorescences, and secondary and tertiary involucres subtending inflorescence branches or single flowers (primary, secondary, and tertiary involucres appearing to be in tiers
), involucral bracts
2-7(-9), leaflike or sepaloid
from or close to flowers. Flowers bisexual
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, 4-20(-27), white, purple, blue, green, yellow, pink, or red, plane
, 3.5-40 mm; petals usually absent (present in A. patens ), distinct
, plane, obovate to elliptic
, 1.5-2 mm; nectary
present; stamens 10-200; filaments
or somewhat broadened at base
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils many, simple; ovule 1 per pistil; style present. Fruits achenes, aggregate, sessile or stalked
, sides not veined; beak
(persistent style) present, sometimes rudimentary
, terminal, straight or curved
, to 40(-50) mm, sometimes plumose
=7 or 8.
Species ca. 150: nearly worldwide, primarily in cooler temperate and arctic regions.
The taxonomy of Anemone continues to be problematic. Anemone occidentalis and A. patens var. multifida (the first two taxa in this treatment) are frequently placed in the genus Pulsatilla Miller on the basis of the long plumose achene beaks, and A. acutiloba and A. americana (the last two taxa in this treatment) in the genus Hepatica Miller, primarily on the basis of the involucre immediately subtending the flower and the lobed, persistent leaves. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Anemone in the broad sense, however, indicate that both Pulsatilla and Hepatica should be subsumed within Anemone. While traditional morphologic characters are useful in distinguishing between Pulsatilla and Hepatica species, respectively, many other morphologic and molecular attributes are shared with Anemone, strongly suggesting that these genera should be united (S. B . Hoot et al. 1994). In addition, a number of genera that have been recognized primarily on a cytotaxonomic basis (e.g. , Anemonastrum, Anemonidium, Anemonoides, and Jurtsevia ) are reduced to synonymy here. Some North American species of Anemone are closely related to plants in Europe, Asia, and South America and continue to be recognized at different ranks . For example, Anemone patens Linnaeus var. multifida (a species included in this treatment) was called Pulsatilla multifida (Pritzel) Juzepczuk for the former Soviet Union by S. V. Juzepczuk (1970) and Pulsatilla patens (Linnaeus) Miller var. multifida (Pritzel) Li S.H. & Huang Y. H. for China by Wang W.-T. (1980). Moreover, interspecific hybridization among some sympatric or nearly sympatric North American species also contributes to the confusion (see N. L. Britton 1891; C. L. Hitchcock et al. 1955-1969, vol. 2; R. S. Mitchell and J. K . Dean 1982). Additional analyses (e.g., G. Boraiah and M. Heimburger 1964; M. Heimburger 1959; C. Joseph and M. Heimburger 1966; and C. S. Keener et al. 1995) may prove to be helpful in resolving the taxonomy within this morphologically diverse genus.
Protoanemonin, an irritating acrid oil , is an enzymatic breakdown product of the glycoside ranunculin and is found in many species of Anemone. While protoanemonin can cause severe topical and gastrointestinal irritation, it is unstable and changes into harmless anemonin when plants are dried (N. J. Turner and A. F. Szczawinski 1991).
A caudex , as the term is used here, is the "woody," perennating base of an aerial shoot (inflorescences and basal leaves ). The word tuber refers to a swollen, more or less vertical underground stem. The aerial shoots arise from the apex of either of those persistent structures. Rhizome, as the term is used here, refers to an underground, usually horizontal stem (more or less vertical in Anemone piperi ), that is nearly uniform in diameter (about 1-4 mm diam., depending on the species) along its length . Aerial shoots arise directly from nodes at or near the apex of the rhizome.
Many species of Anemone have only one type of underground stem. Some species, however, have both rhizomes and caudices. In such cases the aerial shoots arise from the apex of a caudex attached to the rhizome. Some other species sometimes have both tubers and rhizomes. In those, one or more horizontal rhizomes arise near the apex of the tuber; the aerial shoots arise from the apex of the tuber.
Proportions given in the key for the middle lobes of basal leaves are calculated as follows: measure length of lobe from apex to a line connecting bases of sinuses; and measure total length of blade from leaf apex to summit of petiole .
Species Anemone multifida
10-70 cm, from caudices, caudices ascending
3-6(-10), 1-2-ternate; petiole
(2-) 4-10(-14) cm; terminal
to ±sessile, broadly and irregularly rhombic
, (1.5-) 2.5-4.5(-5.5) × (1-) 3-10 cm, base
incised on distal 1/3, apex broadly acute to nearly
; surfaces abaxially villous-silky, hispid
, or sparsely
long-pilose, adaxially glabrous
, nearly glabrous, villous-silky,
or hispid to villous; lateral
leaflets (2-) 3×-parted; ultimate
segments (1.5-) 2-3.5(-5) mm wide. Inflorescences 2-7-flowered cymes
or flowers solitary; peduncle villous, pilose
, or hispid to villous;
usually 3-5, occasionally 2 in secondary involucres,
, occasionally incompletely ternate, ±similar
to basal leaves, greatly reduced, bases distinct
; terminal leaflet
petiolulate to ±sessile, broadly and irregularly rhombic to
obovate, (1.5-) 3-4(-5) × 0.5-1(-2) cm, base narrowly cuneate,
margins incised on distal 1/3, apex broadly acute to nearly obtuse,
surfaces abaxially hispid to villous, villous-silky, or sparsely
long-pilose, adaxially glabrous, nearly glabrous, hispid to villous,
or villous-silky; lateral leaflets (2-) 3×-parted or -lobed,
frequently unequal; ultimate lobes 1.5-3(-4.3) mm wide. Flowers:
sepals 5-9, green to yellow, blue, purple, red, or occasionally white,
or abaxially blue, red, yellow and red, or purple, or tinged purple,
adaxially white, yellow, yellow and red, blue, or tinged purple,
, 5-17 × (3.5-) 5-7(-9) mm, abaxially hairy,
adaxially glabrous; stamens 50-80. Heads
of achenes spheric; pedicel
6-15(-23) cm. Achenes: body irregularly ellipsoid
3-4 × 1.5-2 mm, not winged
, or villous;
±straight, distally recurved or strongly hooked
mm, glabrous. [source]
G.Boraiah and M .Heimburger (1964) conducted an extensive cytotaxonomic analysis of this wide-ranging and extremely variable species and its relatives. The present treatment takes a broader view of the species (and its variation ) and recognizes fewer entities. In addition, Anemone tetonensis and A. stylosa, plants treated as closely related species by G.Boraiah and M.Heimburger, are treated here as varieties of A. multifida. [source]
Early-season plants of Anemone multifida var. multifida have solitary flowers and will key to var. saxicola. Anemone multifida var. tetonensis and especially var. saxicola might be based on characteristics that are influenced primarily by environment; further study is warranted. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: mauve , rose
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,091 meters (0 to 13,422 feet).
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 8a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Adans., 1763, nom. cons.
- boutons d'or, buttercups
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Windflower [etymology not clear: probably Greek anemos, wind; possibly from Naaman, Semitic name for Adonis, whose blood, according to myth, produced Anemone coronaria ]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Anemone multifida Poir.
- Specific epithet: multifida - Poir.
- Genus: Anemone () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Windflower [etymology not clear: probably Greek anemos, wind; possibly from Naaman, Semitic name for Adonis, whose blood, according to myth, produced Anemone coronaria ]
- Tribe: Anemoneae ()
- Subfamily: Ranunculoideae ()
- Family: Ranunculaceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - boutons d'or, buttercups
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Poir. Publication : Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 1. 364 1810 [3 Sep 1810]
Members of the genus Anemone
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 164 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. apennina (Apennine Anemone) · A. apennina var. albiflora (Apennine Anemone) · A. berlandieri (Southern Thimble-Weed) · A. biarmiensis (Windflower) · A. blanda (Grecian Windflower) · A. blanda 'Blue Shades' (Blue Shades Anemone) · A. blanda 'Blue Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Charmer' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Pink Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Radar' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Rosea' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Violet Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'White Splendour' (Anemone) · A. canadensis (Canada Anemone) · A. caroliniana (Carolina Anemone) · A. caroliniana var. heterophylla (Carolina Anemone) · A. coronaria (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Blue Poppy' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Hollandia' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Lord Lieutenant' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mona Lisa Red' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mount Everest' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mr. Fokker' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'St. Brigid' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Sylphide' (Ylphide Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Admiral' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Bride' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Governor' (Grecian Windflower) · A. crispa (Parlsey Leaf Anemone) · A. cylindrica (Candle Anemone) · A. deltoidea (Columbia Windflower) · A. drummondii (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii drummondii (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii heimburgeri (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii subsp. heimburgeri (Heimburger's Anemone) · A. edwardsiana (Edwards Plateau Thimbleweed) · A. edwardsiana var. edwardsiana (Edwards Plateau Thimbleweed) · A. edwardsiana var. petraea (Edge Falls Anemone) · A. hortensis (Anemone) · A. hupehensis (Hupeh Thimble-Weed) · A. hupehensis (Lemoine) Lemoine var. japonica (Thunb.) Bowles & Stearn 'Prinz Hei (Japanese Thimbleweed) · A. hupehensis var. japonica (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis var. japonica 'Bressingham Glow' (Bressingham Glow Windflower) · A. hupehensis 'Alba' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Crispa' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Praecox' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'September Charm' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Splendens' (Splendens Japanese Anemone) · A. japonica (Queen Charlotte Windflower) · A. lancifolia (Lance-Leaved Anemone) · A. leveillei (Windflower) · A. lithophila (Little Belt Mountain Thimble-Weed) · A. lyallii (Little Mountain Thimbleweed) · A. multiceps (Porcupine River Thimble-Weed) · A. multifida (Cut-Leaved Anemone) · A. multifida var. hirsuta (Pacific Anemone) · A. multifida var. hudsoniana (Hudson's Anemone) · A. multifida var. multifida (Cut-Leaf Anemone) · A. multifida var. richardsiana (Richards' Anemone) · A. multifida var. sansonii (Sanson's Anemone) · A. multifida var. saxicola (Cutleaf Anemone) · A. multifida var. stylosa (Cutleaf Anemone) · A. multifida 'Major' (Major Cut-Leaved Anemone Anemone Multifida) · A. multifida 'Rubra' (Cut-Leaved Anemone) · A. narcissiflora (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora interior var. interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora narcissiflora (Narcissus Thimble-Weed) · A. narcissiflora var. monantha (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora var. villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora zephyra (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora zephyra var. zephyra (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. alaskana (Alaskan Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. sibirica (Sibirian Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. zephyra (Zephyr Anemone) · A. nemerosa (European Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa (European Thimble-Weed) · A. nemorosa var. nemorosa (European Thimbleweed) · A. nemorosa × ranunculoides (European Thimbleweed) · A. nemorosa 'Alba Plena' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Allenii' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Blue Bonnet' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Blue Eyes' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Bowles Purple' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Caerulea' (Caerulea Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Dee Day' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Gigantea Rubra' (Wood Anemone 'gigantea Rubra') · A. nemorosa 'Hakumane Senjuizaki' (Wood Anemone 'hakumane Senjuizaki') · A. nemorosa 'Kassari Kirju' (Wood Anemone 'kassari Kirju') · A. nemorosa 'Lychette' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Mart's Blue' (Mart's Blue Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Robinsoniana' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Rosea' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Royal Blue' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Vestal' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Viridiflora' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Westwell Pink' (Wood Anemone)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 01, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
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- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3879169
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-565003
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13845076
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:708506-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3390
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDRAN040E0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ANMUN
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 167242
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- Mean = 1,384.160 meters (4,541.207 feet), Standard Deviation = 923.100 based on 298 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]