Common Names in English:
Grecian Windflower, Lilies-Of-The-Field, Poppy Anemone, Poppy-Flowered Anemone
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from rhizomes, caudices, or tubers. Leaves basal, simple
. Leaf blade
or undivided, reniform
to obtriangular or lanceolate, margins
entire or variously toothed
. Inflorescences terminal
, 2-9-flowered cymes or umbels, or flowers solitary, to 60 cm; involucres present, often with primary
inflorescences, and secondary and tertiary involucres subtending inflorescence branches or single flowers (primary, secondary, and tertiary involucres appearing to be in tiers
), involucral bracts
2-7(-9), leaflike or sepaloid
from or close to flowers. Flowers bisexual
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, 4-20(-27), white, purple, blue, green, yellow, pink, or red, plane
, 3.5-40 mm; petals usually absent (present in A. patens ), distinct
, plane, obovate to elliptic
, 1.5-2 mm; nectary
present; stamens 10-200; filaments
or somewhat broadened at base
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils many, simple; ovule 1 per pistil; style present. Fruits achenes, aggregate, sessile or stalked
, sides not veined; beak
(persistent style) present, sometimes rudimentary
, terminal, straight or curved
, to 40(-50) mm, sometimes plumose
=7 or 8.
Species ca. 150: nearly worldwide, primarily in cooler temperate and arctic regions.
The taxonomy of Anemone continues to be problematic. Anemone occidentalis and A. patens var. multifida (the first two taxa in this treatment) are frequently placed in the genus Pulsatilla Miller on the basis of the long plumose achene beaks, and A. acutiloba and A. americana (the last two taxa in this treatment) in the genus Hepatica Miller, primarily on the basis of the involucre immediately subtending the flower and the lobed, persistent leaves. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Anemone in the broad sense, however, indicate that both Pulsatilla and Hepatica should be subsumed within Anemone. While traditional morphologic characters are useful in distinguishing between Pulsatilla and Hepatica species, respectively, many other morphologic and molecular attributes are shared with Anemone, strongly suggesting that these genera should be united (S. B . Hoot et al. 1994). In addition, a number of genera that have been recognized primarily on a cytotaxonomic basis (e.g. , Anemonastrum, Anemonidium, Anemonoides, and Jurtsevia ) are reduced to synonymy here. Some North American species of Anemone are closely related to plants in Europe, Asia, and South America and continue to be recognized at different ranks . For example, Anemone patens Linnaeus var. multifida (a species included in this treatment) was called Pulsatilla multifida (Pritzel) Juzepczuk for the former Soviet Union by S. V. Juzepczuk (1970) and Pulsatilla patens (Linnaeus) Miller var. multifida (Pritzel) Li S.H. & Huang Y. H. for China by Wang W.-T. (1980). Moreover, interspecific hybridization among some sympatric or nearly sympatric North American species also contributes to the confusion (see N. L. Britton 1891; C. L. Hitchcock et al. 1955-1969, vol. 2; R. S. Mitchell and J. K . Dean 1982). Additional analyses (e.g., G. Boraiah and M. Heimburger 1964; M. Heimburger 1959; C. Joseph and M. Heimburger 1966; and C. S. Keener et al. 1995) may prove to be helpful in resolving the taxonomy within this morphologically diverse genus.
Protoanemonin, an irritating acrid oil , is an enzymatic breakdown product of the glycoside ranunculin and is found in many species of Anemone. While protoanemonin can cause severe topical and gastrointestinal irritation, it is unstable and changes into harmless anemonin when plants are dried (N. J. Turner and A. F. Szczawinski 1991).
A caudex , as the term is used here, is the "woody," perennating base of an aerial shoot (inflorescences and basal leaves ). The word tuber refers to a swollen, more or less vertical underground stem. The aerial shoots arise from the apex of either of those persistent structures. Rhizome, as the term is used here, refers to an underground, usually horizontal stem (more or less vertical in Anemone piperi ), that is nearly uniform in diameter (about 1-4 mm diam., depending on the species) along its length . Aerial shoots arise directly from nodes at or near the apex of the rhizome.
Many species of Anemone have only one type of underground stem. Some species, however, have both rhizomes and caudices. In such cases the aerial shoots arise from the apex of a caudex attached to the rhizome. Some other species sometimes have both tubers and rhizomes. In those, one or more horizontal rhizomes arise near the apex of the tuber; the aerial shoots arise from the apex of the tuber.
Proportions given in the key for the middle lobes of basal leaves are calculated as follows: measure length of lobe from apex to a line connecting bases of sinuses; and measure total length of blade from leaf apex to summit of petiole .
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: cream, light blue, magenta, medium blue, near white, red, scarletdark red, tan, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 699 meters (0 to 2,293 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Adans., 1763, nom. cons.
- boutons d'or, buttercups
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Windflower [etymology not clear: probably Greek anemos, wind; possibly from Naaman, Semitic name for Adonis, whose blood, according to myth, produced Anemone coronaria ]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Anemone coronaria L.
- Specific epithet: coronaria - L.
- Genus: Anemone () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Windflower [etymology not clear: probably Greek anemos, wind; possibly from Naaman, Semitic name for Adonis, whose blood, according to myth, produced Anemone coronaria ]
- Tribe: Anemoneae ()
- Subfamily: Ranunculoideae ()
- Family: Ranunculaceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - boutons d'or, buttercups
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Anemone
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 164 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. apennina (Apennine Anemone) · A. apennina var. albiflora (Apennine Anemone) · A. berlandieri (Southern Thimble-Weed) · A. biarmiensis (Windflower) · A. blanda (Grecian Windflower) · A. blanda 'Blue Shades' (Blue Shades Anemone) · A. blanda 'Blue Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Charmer' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Pink Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Radar' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Rosea' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'Violet Star' (Anemone) · A. blanda 'White Splendour' (Anemone) · A. canadensis (Canada Anemone) · A. caroliniana (Carolina Anemone) · A. caroliniana var. heterophylla (Carolina Anemone) · A. coronaria (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Blue Poppy' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Hollandia' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Lord Lieutenant' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mona Lisa Red' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mount Everest' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Mr. Fokker' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'St. Brigid' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'Sylphide' (Ylphide Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Admiral' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Bride' (Grecian Windflower) · A. coronaria 'The Governor' (Grecian Windflower) · A. crispa (Parlsey Leaf Anemone) · A. cylindrica (Candle Anemone) · A. deltoidea (Columbia Windflower) · A. drummondii (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii drummondii (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii heimburgeri (Drummond Anemone) · A. drummondii subsp. heimburgeri (Heimburger's Anemone) · A. edwardsiana (Edwards Plateau Thimbleweed) · A. edwardsiana var. edwardsiana (Edwards Plateau Thimbleweed) · A. edwardsiana var. petraea (Edge Falls Anemone) · A. hortensis (Anemone) · A. hupehensis (Hupeh Thimble-Weed) · A. hupehensis (Lemoine) Lemoine var. japonica (Thunb.) Bowles & Stearn 'Prinz Hei (Japanese Thimbleweed) · A. hupehensis var. japonica (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis var. japonica 'Bressingham Glow' (Bressingham Glow Windflower) · A. hupehensis 'Alba' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Crispa' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Praecox' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'September Charm' (Japanese Anemone) · A. hupehensis 'Splendens' (Splendens Japanese Anemone) · A. japonica (Queen Charlotte Windflower) · A. lancifolia (Lance-Leaved Anemone) · A. leveillei (Windflower) · A. lithophila (Little Belt Mountain Thimble-Weed) · A. lyallii (Little Mountain Thimbleweed) · A. multiceps (Porcupine River Thimble-Weed) · A. multifida (Cut-Leaved Anemone) · A. multifida var. hirsuta (Pacific Anemone) · A. multifida var. hudsoniana (Hudson's Anemone) · A. multifida var. multifida (Cut-Leaf Anemone) · A. multifida var. richardsiana (Richards' Anemone) · A. multifida var. sansonii (Sanson's Anemone) · A. multifida var. saxicola (Cutleaf Anemone) · A. multifida var. stylosa (Cutleaf Anemone) · A. multifida 'Major' (Major Cut-Leaved Anemone Anemone Multifida) · A. multifida 'Rubra' (Cut-Leaved Anemone) · A. narcissiflora (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora interior var. interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora narcissiflora (Narcissus Thimble-Weed) · A. narcissiflora var. monantha (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora var. villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora zephyra (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora zephyra var. zephyra (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. alaskana (Alaskan Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. interior (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. sibirica (Sibirian Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. villosissima (Narcissus Anemone) · A. narcissiflora subsp. zephyra (Zephyr Anemone) · A. nemerosa (European Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa (European Thimble-Weed) · A. nemorosa var. nemorosa (European Thimbleweed) · A. nemorosa × ranunculoides (European Thimbleweed) · A. nemorosa 'Alba Plena' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Allenii' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Blue Bonnet' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Blue Eyes' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Bowles Purple' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Caerulea' (Caerulea Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Dee Day' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Gigantea Rubra' (Wood Anemone 'gigantea Rubra') · A. nemorosa 'Hakumane Senjuizaki' (Wood Anemone 'hakumane Senjuizaki') · A. nemorosa 'Kassari Kirju' (Wood Anemone 'kassari Kirju') · A. nemorosa 'Lychette' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Mart's Blue' (Mart's Blue Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Robinsoniana' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Rosea' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Royal Blue' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Vestal' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Viridiflora' (Wood Anemone) · A. nemorosa 'Westwell Pink' (Wood Anemone)
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- The handbook to the flower garden and greenhouse / by George Glenny. London: W. Kent, 1859. url p. 17.
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- Voyages and travels in the Levant in the years 1749, 50, 51, 52: containing observations in natural history, physick, agriculture and commerce: particularly on the Holy Land and the natural history of the Scriptures / written originally in the Swedish language by the late Frederick Hasselquist; published. .. by Charles Linnaeus. London: Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers, 1766. url p. 241.
- Window gardening. Devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants, for indoor use and parlor decoration. Ed. by Henry T. Williams. New York, H. T. Williams, 1878, c1871. url p. 274, p. 274.
- Window gardening: devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants for indoor use and parlor decoration / edited by Henry T. Williams. New York: H.T. Williams, 1872. url p. 274.
- Fernald, M. L. 1928b. The North American species of Anemone & Anemonanthea. Rhodora 30: 180-188.
- Frodin, D.G. 1964. A Preliminary Revision of the Section Anemonanthea of Anemone in Eastern North America, with Special Reference to the Southern Appalachian Mountains. M.S. thesis. University of Tennessee. Hoot, S. B., A. A. Reznicek, and J. D. Palmer. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) based on morphology and chloroplast DNA. Syst. Bot. 19: 169-200.
- Wang,W.-T. 1980. Anemone In: W.-T. Wang, ed. 1980. Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae. Vol. 28, pp. 1-56.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC-Histórico
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2663963
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-184134
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13845076
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:708314-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3378
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 184134
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ANCO40
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21298
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Bryan E. Dutton, Carl S. Keener & Bruce A. Ford "Anemone". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 241.320 meters (791.732 feet), Standard Deviation = 296.550 based on 928 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]