Common Names in English:
, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
, or biennial, acaulescent
, rarely caulescent
from a caudex
. Leaves forming a rosette, rarely alternate; rosettes solitary or clustered, forming lax
mats or compact
. Inflorescences umbellate
, rarely a solitary flower, with bracts. Flowers 5-merous, homostylous. Calyx campanulate
to subglobose, shallowly to deeply lobed
. Corolla white, pink, purple, or dark red, rarely yellow; tube
usually ± inflated
as long as to shorter than calyx; throat
entire or emarginate
. Stamens included
on corolla tube; filaments
very short; anthers
, apex obtuse
. Style not longer
than corolla tube. Capsule subglobose, dehiscing nearly to base
. Seeds few to many.
Approximately 100 species widely distributed in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere; 73 species native to China.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, pink, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Lam. Publication : Fl. Fran?. (Lamarck) 3: 642 1779 [1778 publ. after 21 Mar 1779]
Members of the genus Androsace
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 46 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. alpina (Rock Jasmine) · A. brevis (Rock Jasmine) · A. carnea (Rock Jasmine) · A. chamaejasme (Rock Jasmine) · A. chamaejasmeersonii (Anderson's Rockjasmine) · A. chamaejasme andersonii (Anderson's Rockjasmine) · A. chamaejasme subsp. andersonii (Anderson's Rockjasmine) · A. chamaejasme subsp. carinata (Sweetflower Rockjasmine) · A. chamaejasme subsp. lehmanniana (Lehmann's Rockjasmine) · A. ciliata (Rock Jasmine) · A. cylindrica (Rock Jasmine) · A. delavayi (Rock Jasmine) · A. elongata (California Rock-Jasmine) · A. elongata acuta (Lehmann Sweet-Flowered Fairy-Candelabra) · A. elongata subsp. acuta (California Rockjasmine) · A. filiformis (Filiform Rockjasmine) · A. globifera (Rock Jasmine) · A. hausmannii (Rock Jasmine) · A. hedraeantha (Rock Jasmine) · A. hirtella (Rock Jasmine) · A. lanuginosa (Rock Jasmine) · A. maxima (Greater Rockjasmine) · A. muscoidea (Rock Jasmine) · A. occidentalis (Western Rock Jasmine) · A. pyrenaica (Rock Jasmine) · A. sarmentosa (Rock Jasmine) · A. sempervivoides (Rock Jasmine) · A. septentrionalis (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis glandulosa (Pygmyflower Rock Jasmine) · A. septentrionalis glandulosa var. glandulosa (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis puberulenta (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis robusta (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis septentrionalis (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis subulifera (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis subumbellata (Northern Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis subsp. glandulosa (Pygmyflower Rock Jasmine) · A. septentrionalis subsp. puberulenta (Pygmy-Flower Rock-Jasmine) · A. septentrionalis subsp. robusta (Pygmyflower Rockjasmine) · A. septentrionalis subsp. subulifera (Pygmyflower Rock Jasmine) · A. septentrionalis subsp. subumbellata (Pygmyflower Rockjasmine) · A. subulifera (Pygmyflower Rock Jasmine) · A. subumbellata (Pygmyflower Rockjasmine) · A. vandellii (Rock Jasmine) · A. villosa (Rock Jasmine) · A. wulfeniana (Rock Jasmine) · A. 'Millstream' (Rock Jasmine)
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- Alpine flowers for gardens: rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs / by W. Robinson. London: John Murray, 1903. url p. 155.
- Alpine flowers for gardens; rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs, by W. Robinson. London, J. Murray, 1910. url p. 155.
- Alpine plants, a practical manual for their culture, with a supplementary essay on The small rock-garden. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1906, 1907. url .
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- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url .
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 121, p. 75.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 63.
- Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of thirteen hundred of the most ornamental species, with directions for their arrangement, culture, etc.. .. By W. Robinson. London, Macmillan, 1878. url p. 53.
- House & garden's book of gardens; containing over four hundred illustrations of special flower types, plans and suggestions for landscape work, a complete gardener's calendar of the year's activities, planting and spraying tables, and New York, C. Nast & Company, 1921. url p. 33.
- How to make a flower garden; a manual of practical information and suggestions. New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1903. url p. 166, p. 166.
- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 67.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 503.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 2 1902 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 267.
- Reports and papers on botany. London: Printed for the Ray society, 1846-49. url p. 335.
- Rock gardening for amateurs, by H. H. Thomas assisted by S. Arnott; beautifully illustrated with twelve direct colour photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke, sixty-four half-tone plates and numerous sketches. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1914. url p. 269.
- Rock gardens: how to make and maintain them, London, Williams & Norgate, 1910. url p. 229.
- Rock gardens; how to make and maintain them, by Lewis B. Meredith, with an introduction by F. W. Moore. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1914. url p. 229.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 63.
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- The Asa Gray bulletin. 1 1952 Ann Arbor, Mich. url , p. 338.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson; illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1906. url p. 432.
- The English rock-garden, by Reginald Farrer. London, Jack, 1919. url , p. 34, p. 358, p. 405, p. 42, p. 43, p. 450, p. 47, p. 49, p. 492, p. 57.
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- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 764.
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- The alpine flora / by Henry Correvon and Phillippe Robert; translated into English and enlarged, under the author's sanction, by E. W. Clayforth. London: Methuen,  url p. 429.
- The book of hardy flowers; a simple and complete descriptive guide to the cultivation in gardens of the trees and shrubs, perennial and annual flowers, that are hardy, or are suitable for planting out-of-doors in summer in temp Ed. by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with thirty-two direct color photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke and sixty-four half-tone plates. 1915 New York, Funk & Wagnalls company; [etc., etc.] url p. 31.
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- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. London: [The Society], 1791-1875. url p. 337.
- Chen Feng-hwai, Hu Chi-ming, Fang Yun-yi, Cheng Chao-zong, Yang Yong-chang & Huang Rong-fu In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (1). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(1): 1-217
- Hu Chi-ming In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (2). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(2): 1-321.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 16, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 3 providers.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 16, 2008:
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU: Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5939251
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15796667
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:700170-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 700170-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 718050
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Androsace". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 80. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]