Common Names in English:
Plants dark green to black, small to large, often in dense turf
. Stems erect
, irregularly branched, bearing rhizoids at base
; central strand absent. Leaves erect or secund
, sometimes falcate-secund, short- to long-lanceolate or panduriform; costa absent or single or branched, narrow to broad, percurrent
or ending before the apex; in section
, lamellae absent; margins
to weakly incurved
, seldom recurved; laminal
cells short throughout or occasionally elongate
in leaf base, 1-stratose or 2- to multistratose. Specialized asexual
reproduction rare, as filamentous
gemmae from laminal cells. Sexual condition usually autoicous
, mainly cladautoicous
but occasionally gonioautoicous
or dioicous; perichaetial leaves commonly differentiated, larger, convolute-sheathing. Sporophytes terminal
on an elongate gametophytic stalk
, the pseudopodium. Seta essentially absent. Capsule erect, elliptic
, opening by usually 4 lateral
; stomata, annulus, operculum and peristome absent. Calyptra tiny, campanulate-mitrate, often fugacious
. Spores spheric, oval
, small to large, 10 to occasionally more than 100 µm, papillose
Genus 1, species ca. 45 (11 in the flora ) : cosmopolitan .
The Andreaeaceae shares with Sphagnaceae the sporophyte raised on a pseudopodium, but the spore sac is derived from the endothecium, not the amphithecium as in the latter family . The spore sac arches over the massive, persistent columella. The longitudinal valves bulge open when the capsules are dry, closing when wet. Erect, thallose protonemal appendages are common and distinctive.
Plants commonly cemented to substrate. Stems with stalked
in leaf axils
usually brown. Leaves spiraling around stem in several rows
, usually brittle, commonly ending in a distinct
of a single cell
; costa sometimes poorly differentiated, sometimes not reaching the leaf insertion
cells with thick longitudinal
walls and often pitted
or sinuose, transverse
walls thin. Capsule 0.5-2 mm.
Species about 45: cosmopolitan .
Andreaea is easily recognized in the field by the dark green to blackish dense turf strongly adherent to a rock habitat , the brittle leaves, and capsule opening by four longitudinal lateral slits. These species are largely temperate montane to arctic-alpine in distribution, not uncommon on exposed acid rock surfaces. The present treatment follows B . M. Murray's (1987, 1988, 1988b) detailed and thorough study closely except that Andreaea alpestris is treated as a synonym of A. rupestris and A. crassinervia as a synonym of A. rothii, following M. F. V. Corley et al. (1981), while infraspecific taxa are not recognized. The costa may be interpreted as strongly excurrent when it fills the leaf subula.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Andreaea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 14 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. alpestris (Andreaea Moss) · A. blyttii (Blytt's Andreaea Moss) · A. crassinervia (Andreaea Moss) · A. heinemannii (Heinemann's Andreaea Moss) · A. megistospora (Andreaea Moss) · A. megistospora B.Murr. var. epapillosa (B.Murr.) Crum & Anderson (Andreaea Moss) · A. mutabilis (Andreaea Moss) · A. nivalis (Andreaea Moss) · A. obovata (Obovate Andreaea Moss) · A. rothii (Roth's Andreaea Moss) · A. rupestris var. papillosa (Andreaea Moss) · A. rupestris var. rupestris (Andreaea Moss) · A. schofieldiana (Schofield's Andreaea Moss) · A. sinuosa (Andreaea Moss)
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- Murray, B. M. 1988b. The genus Andreaea in Britain and Ireland. J. Bryol. 15: 17-82.
- Schultze-Motel, W. 1970. Monographie der Laubmoosgattung Andreaea. 1. Die costaten Arten. Willdenowia 6: 25-110.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed September 25, 2006. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 549330
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ANRUR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21048
- Richard H. Zander "Andreaeaceae". in Flora of North America Vol Page. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Andreaea". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 3, 10, 11, 43, 102, 103, 108, 109. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 563.270 meters (1,847.999 feet), Standard Deviation = 850.060 based on 13,137 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]