, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
, sparsely strigose
, rarely soft appressed
. Stems erect
. Leaves alternate. Cymes terminal
, widely spaced in fruit, scorpioid; bracts lanceolate. Calyx 5-parted nearly to base
or less; lobes
equal or unequal, linear
to triangular, often slightly enlarged in fruit. Corolla blue-purple or yellowish, regular or slightly zygomorphic; tube
than calyx, straight or arcuate
and short pubescent; limb campanulate
; lobes 5, equal or unequal, apex obtuse
. Stamens inserted
at or below middle
of corolla tube, included
ovate-oblong, apex obtuse. Ovary 4-divided. Style included in corolla tube; stigma capitate, 2-cleft. Gynobase
, or oblique-ovoid, reticulate-wrinkled; attachment scar
at or near base, margin
ringlike, thickened, hardened.
About 50 species: N Africa, C and W Asia, Europe; one species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Ait. Publication : Hort. Kew. i. 177
Members of the genus Anchusa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. arvensis (Annual Bugloss) · A. azurea (Italian Alkanet) · A. azurea 'Dropmore' (Italian Alkanet) · A. azurea 'Feltham Pride' (Italian Alkanet) · A. azurea 'Loddon Royalist' (Italian Alkanet) · A. barrelieri (Barrelier's Bugloss) · A. capensis (Cape Bugloss) · A. capensis 'Blue Angel' (Summer Forget-Me-Not) · A. officinalis (Alkanet) · A. tinctoria (Alkanet) · A. undulata (Undulate Alkanet)
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- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url p. 675.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 877.
- Appendix to the first twenty-three volumes of Edwards's botanical register: consisting of a complete alphabetical and systematical index of names, synomymes and matter, adjusted to the present state of systematical botany, together with a sketch of the vegetation of the Swan by John Lindley. London: James Ridgway, 1839. url p. xx.
- Flora calpensis; contributions to the botany and topography of Gibraltar, and its neighbourhood. By E. F. Kelaart. London, J. van Voorst, 1846. url p. 131.
- Flora conspicua: a selection of the most ornamental flowering, hardy, exotic and indigenous trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, for embellishing flower-gardens and pleasure-grounds / by Richard Morris; drawn and engraved from living specimens by William Clark. 1826 London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826. url , explanation of plate 10.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 21.
- How to work with the microscope. By Lionel S. Beale, F. R. S. London, Harrison, 1868. url p. 166, p. 369.
- Journal of botany: being a second series of the Botanical miscellany. 1 1834 London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman; Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1834-1842. url p. 19.
- Quarterly journal of microscopical science. London, J. and A. Churchill [etc.] url p. 48.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, [1828-30] url p. 259.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 71.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 368, p. 370.
- The New England farmer. Boston: Thomas W. Shepard, 1822-1835. url p. 411.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 106.
- The microscope, and some of the wonders it reveals. London, Cassell, Petter, & Galpin[1875?] url p. 129, p. 22.
- Wang Wen-tsai, Liu Yu-lan, Zhu Ge-ling, Lian Yong-shan, Wang Jing-quan & Wang Qing-rui in Kung Xian-wu & Wang Wen-tsai, eds. 1989. Boraginaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(2): 1-253.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10563190
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:113321-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 113321-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1211481
- Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl & Rudolf V. Kamelin "Boraginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 329. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Anchusa". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 358. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]