, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
, sparsely strigose
, rarely soft appressed
. Stems erect
. Leaves alternate. Cymes terminal
, widely spaced in fruit, scorpioid; bracts lanceolate. Calyx 5-parted nearly to base
or less; lobes
equal or unequal, linear
to triangular, often slightly enlarged in fruit. Corolla blue-purple or yellowish, regular or slightly zygomorphic; tube
than calyx, straight or arcuate
and short pubescent; limb campanulate
; lobes 5, equal or unequal, apex obtuse
. Stamens inserted
at or below middle
of corolla tube, included
ovate-oblong, apex obtuse. Ovary 4-divided. Style included in corolla tube; stigma capitate, 2-cleft. Gynobase
, or oblique-ovoid, reticulate-wrinkled; attachment scar
at or near base, margin
ringlike, thickened, hardened.
About 50 species: N Africa, C and W Asia, Europe; one species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Anchusa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. arvensis (Annual Bugloss) · A. azurea (Italian Alkanet) · A. azurea 'Dropmore' (Italian Alkanet) · A. azurea 'Feltham Pride' (Italian Alkanet) · A. azurea 'Loddon Royalist' (Italian Alkanet) · A. barrelieri (Barrelier's Bugloss) · A. capensis (Cape Bugloss) · A. capensis 'Blue Angel' (Summer Forget-Me-Not) · A. officinalis (Alkanet) · A. tinctoria (Alkanet) · A. undulata (Undulate Alkanet)
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- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 2.
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- A garden diary: September 1899-September 1900 / London: Methuen & Co., 1901. url .
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- A manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By John Hutton Balfour. London: J. J. Griffin [etc.] 1851. url p. 463.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 675, p. 86.
- A student's text-book of botany. London, Sonnenschein, 1894. url p. 164.
- Alien flora of Britain. London, West, Newman, 1905. url p. 134.
- Alpines and bog-plants / by Reginald Farrer. London, Arnold, 1908. url .
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- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. London, Printed for Longman, Ross, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828. url p. 884.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 877, p. 884.
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- Annual report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. [Orono, Me.: Maine State College, 1885-1953. url p. 233.
- Annuals & biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden, London, C. Scribner's sons url .
- Appendix to the first twenty-three volumes of Edwards's botanical register: consisting of a complete alphabetical and systematical index of names, synomymes and matter, adjusted to the present state of systematical botany, together with a sketch of the vegetation of the Swan by John Lindley. London: James Ridgway, 1839. url p.
- Beautiful flowers and how to grow them, by Horace J. Wright & Walter P. Wright. Illustrated with 32 plates in full colours from paintings by Beatrice Parsons, Eleanor Fortesque Brickdale, Hugh L. Norris, Margaret Waterfield, A. Fairfax Muck 1922 Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, ltd., 1922. url p. 122, index, page 399.
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- Botanic drugs, their materia medica, pharmacology, and therapeutics, by Thomas S. Blair. Cincinnati, O.: The Therapeutic digest publishing co., 1917. url p. 341.
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- Calcutta journal of natural history, and miscellany of the arts and sciences in India. Calcutta, Bishop's College Press. url p. 65.
- Cassell's dictionary of practical gardening; an illustrated encyclopædia of practical horticulture for all classes; ed. by Walter P. Wright. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1902. url p. 109.
- Colour in my garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in colour, by Anna Winegar. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1918. url p. 134, p. 352, p. 390.
- Commercial gardening, a practical & scientific treatise for market gardeners, market growers, fruit, flower & vegetable growers, nurserymen, etc. By many practical specialists under the editorship of John Weathers. London, The Gresham publishing company, 1913. url p. 5.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 106, p. 627.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 48 1821 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url .
- Dictionary of the common names of plants with list of foreign plants cultivated in the open / by Rudolf Marloth. Cape Town: Specialty Press of South Africa, 1917. url p. 146.
- Edwards, S. T. The Botanical register: consisting of coloured figures of. .. 9 1823 London: Printed for James Ridgway, 1815-1828. url , , , , , , , .
- English plant names from the tenth to the fifteenth century by John Earle. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1880. url .
- Every woman's flower garden: how to make and keep it beautiful / by Mary Hampden; with five colour plates by Mary S. Reeve and 83 designs by the author. New York: Duffield & Company, 1915. url p. 137.
- Experimental pollination; an outline of the ecology of flowers and insects, by Frederic E. Clements and Frances L. Long. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1923. url p. 193.
- Flora calpensis; contributions to the botany and topography of Gibraltar, and its neighbourhood. By E. F. Kelaart. London, J. van Voorst, 1846. url p. 131, p. 58.
- Flora conspicua: a selection of the most ornamental flowering, hardy, exotic and indigenous trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, for embellishing flower-gardens and pleasure-grounds / by Richard Morris; drawn and engraved from living specimens by William Clark. 1826 London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826. url explanation of plate 10.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url .
- Florists' review Chicago: Florists' Pub. Co. url , , , , , , , , .
- Florula Mortolensis. An enumeration of the plants growing wild at La Mortola. Ventimiglia, Billi, 1905. url .
- Flower gardening, New York, bMcBride, Nast & company, 1913. url .
- Flower gardening, by H. S. Adams. New York, McBride, Nast & Company, 1913. url p. 182.
- Flowering plants of the Riviera: a sescriptive account of 1800 of the more interesting species / by H. Stuart Thompson; with an introduction on Riviera vegetation by A. G. Tansley London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1914. url , p. 161, p. x.
- Four essays written by students at Wisley, 1913. .. [London]Printed by Spottiswoode & co. ltd., 1913. url , p. 38.
- Fritz Bahr's commercial floriculture; a practical manual for the retail grower, New York, The A. T. De la Mare company, inc.[c1922] url .
- Garden colour: Spring, by Mrs. C. W. Earle; Summer, by E. V. B.; Autumn, by Rose Kingsley; Winter, by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs; etc., etc. Notes & water color sketches by Margaret Waterfield. 1905 London, E. P. Dutton & company, 1905. url index, page 187.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardener's handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow gook vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub ed. by J. Harrison Dick... New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.1917 url p. 60, p. 65, p. 68.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardeners' handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow good vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.[c1917] url , .
- Garden guide; the amateur gardeners' handbook. Profusely illustrated with over 275 teaching plans and diagrams and reproduced photographs, all made expressly for this standard text book. Edited by A. T. De La Mare. New York, A. T. De La Mare[c1920] url p. 77, p. 83.
- Garden planning and planting / edited by H. H. Thomas. -- London; Cassell and company, 1910. url p. 105.
- Gardening for amateurs; a simple, complete, and practical guide for garden lovers, edited by H. H. Thomas. Illustrated by twenty-four coloured plates and many hundreds of photographs and sketches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls company,  url p. 1094, p. 1133, p. 133, p. 28.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url , .
- Gardens past & present. By K.L. Davidson. .. Illustrated from photographs by F. Mason Good. London, T.W. Laurie url p. 227.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 73.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url p. 48.
- Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of thirteen hundred of the most ornamental species, with directions for their arrangement, culture, etc.. .. By W. Robinson. London, Macmillan, 1878. url p. 51.
- Hardy perennials and old-fashioned garden flowers. Describing the most desirable plants for borders, rockcries, and shrubberies, and including both foliage and flowering plants. By John Wood. London, L.U. Gill, 1884. url p. 313, p. 315, p. 317, p. 321, p. 8.
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url .
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904-. url p. 282, p. 370, p. 399, p. 438, p. 439, p. 448, p. 493, p. 622, p. 837.
- Hortus suburbanus Calcuttensis; A catalogue of the plants which have been cultivated in the Hon. East India Company's botanical garden, Calcutta, and in the Serampore botanical garden. By the late J. O. Voigt, printed under the superintendence of W. Griffith. Calcutta, Bishop's College Press, 1845. url p. 443.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 22.
- Irish gardening. Dublin: Pub. Office, 1906-1922 url , p. 104, p. 14.
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- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , , , , p. 104, p. 110, p. 116, p. 119, p. 129, p. 140, p. 81, p. 97.
- Loddiges, C. L. The botanical cabinet: consisting of coloured delineations of plants, from all countries, with a short account of each, directions for management, &c, &c /by Conrad Loddiges & Sons; the plates by George Cooke... 14 1828 London: John & Arthur Arch. .., 1817-1833. url , no. 1383.
- Memoirs and proceedings of the Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society. Manchester: The Society, 1888-1980. url p. 8.
- More pot-pourri from a Surrey garden, London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1899. url , p. 169.
- My garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. .. illustrated by Will Simmons. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & company, [c1916] url p. 36, p. 36, p. 95, p. 95.
- My growing garden, by J. Horace McFarland. .. illustrated with photographs by the author and Robert B. McFarland. London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1915. url p. 132.
- Nature. London, etc., Macmillan Journals Ltd., etc. url p. 675.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 325.
- Practical plant physiology: an introduction to original research for students and teachers of natural science, medicine, agriculture and forestry / by W. Detmer; translated from the 2nd German edition by S.A. Moor. London: Macmillan, 1898. url p. 12.
- Practical plant propagation; an exposition of the art and science of increasing plants as practiced by the nurseryman, florist and gardener, by Alfred C. Hottes. New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc., 1922. url p. 84.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 976.
- Round the year in the garden; a descriptive guide to the flowers of the four seasons, and to the work of each month in the flower, friut and kitchen garden, by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with twelve direct colour photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke, and sixty-four half-tone plates. New York, Funk and Wagnalls company url .
- Spicilegium florae Maroccanae / by John Ball. London: Printed by Taylor and Francis, 1878. url p. 571.
- Spixiana. 6 1983 München: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, 1977- url p. 157.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 13, p. 51.
- Studies in gardening, New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1916. url , , .
- Studies in gardening, by A. Clutton Brock; with preface and notes by Mrs. Francis King. .. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1916. url p. 107, p. 107, p. 307, p. 307, p. 329, p. 329.
- Textbook of theoretical botany, by R. C. McLean and W. R. Ivimey-Cook. London, Longmans, Green[1951- url p. 2185.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 489, p. 961.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 188, p. 188, p. 455, p. 455.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 101.
- The Canadian horticulturist [monthly] St. Catharines, E.S. Leavenworth. url p. 101, p. 173.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 338.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url p. 260, p. 278.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 113.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 1039, p. 1111, p. 1184, p. 1236, p. 1308, p. 1322, p. 1334, p. 1380, p. 1384, p. 1427, p. 1488, p. 1500, p. 219, p. 298, p. 346, p. 375, p. 411, p. 426, p. 536, p. 568, p. 607, p. 618, p. 657, p. 741, p. 77, p. 800, p. 849, p. 88, p. 907, p. 963.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 110, p. 118, p. 12, p. 120, p. 121, p. 123, p. 128, p. 133, p. 134, p. 137, p. 138, p. 139, p. 139, p. 140, p. 143, p. 145, p. 152, p. 153, p. 158, p. 160, p. 176, p. 177, p. 178, p. 18, p. 185, p. 191, p. 192, p. 204, p. 208, p. 21, p. 210, p. 217, p. 219, p. 22, p. 22, p. 223, p. 225, p. 227, p. 23, p. 235, p. 235, p. 237, p. 244, p. 26, p. 27, p. 273, p. 28, p. 28, p. 281, p. 286, p. 292, p. 3, p. 308, p. 313, p. 318, p. 319, p. 321, p. 321, p. 334, p. 334, p. 349, p. 349, p. 352, p. 356, p. 36, p. 366, p. 370, p. 371, p. 380, p. 384, p. 397, p. 398, p. 404, p. 408, p. 41, p. 43, p. 430, p. 431, p. 433, p. 438, p. 44, p. 443, p. 452, p. 455, p. 470, p. 471, p. 479, p. 49, p. 500, p. 502, p. 502, p. 517, p. 523, p. 531, p. 533, p. 535, p. 535, p. 539, p. 545, p. 548, p. 562, p. 566, p. 567, p. 567, p. 570, p. 571, p. 577, p. 577, p. 578, p. 59, p. 611, p. 620, p. 622, p. 622, p. 630, p. 66, p. 676, p. 69, p. 69, p. 69, p. 74, p. 77, p. 80, p. 88, p. 90, p. 93.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticultural advertiser. Philadelphia [Pa.: s.n.1859-1875] url p. 168.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 944.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , , , , , , , , , , p. 10, p. 104, p. 11, p. 111, p. 112, p. 113, p. 114, p. 116, p. 122, p. 130, p. 137, p. 141, p. 144, p. 147, p. 147, p. 15, p. 152, p. 160, p. 166, p. 168, p. 170, p. 170, p. 171, p. 187, p. 19, p. 192, p. 198, p. 20, p. 202, p. 203, p. 212, p. 215, p. 22, p. 22, p. 221, p. 222, p. 224, p. 237, p. 243, p. 251, p. 256, p. 259, p. 260, p. 266, p. 266, p. 273, p. 282, p. 283, p. 291, p. 292, p. 295, p. 295, p. 296, p. 299, p. 3, p. 33, p. 332, p. 336, p. 340, p. 344, p. 35, p. 352, p. 353, p. 356, p. 357, p. 358, p. 359, p. 360, p. 364, p. 369, p. 376, p. 378, p. 387, p. 389, p. 392, p. 392, p. 393, p. 396, p. 40, p. 40, p. 40, p. 40, p. 400, p. 405, p. 407, p. 412, p. 414, p. 417, p. 419, p. 423, p. 428, p. 441, p. 444, p. 445, p. 466, p. 5, p. 510, p. 53, p. 54, p. 6, p. 600, p. 67, p. 674, p. 74, p. 757, p. 757, p. 763, p. 767, p. 768, p. 778, p. 78, p. 796, p. 796, p. 8, p. 82, p. 87, p. 96.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 71.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url , p. 202, p. 281, p. 285, p. 39, p. 47.
- The Naturalist. 1896 [Doncaster: Yorkshire Naturalists' Union], 1874- url p. 329.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 330, p. 40.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 791, p. 797, p. 799.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 762, p. 782.
- The book of hardy flowers; a simple and complete descriptive guide to the cultivation in gardens of the trees and shrubs, perennial and annual flowers, that are hardy, or are suitable for planting out-of-doors in summer in temp Ed. by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with thirty-two direct color photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke and sixty-four half-tone plates. 1915 New York, Funk & Wagnalls company; [etc., etc.] url plate 3, p. 30.
- The book of nature study, ed. by J. Bretland Farmer. .. assisted by a staff of specialists. Fully illustrated. London, Caxton publishing company[1908?]-1909. url p. 171, p. 225.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url , p. 184, p. 222, p. 222, p. 231.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 155, p. 86.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 146, p. 148.
- The cytoplasm of the plant cell, by Alexandre Guilliermond. .. Authorized translation from the unpublished French manuscript, by Lenette Rogers Atkinson, PH. D. Foreword by William Seifriz. .. Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Company, 1941. url p. 177.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 168, p. 168.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The flora of the Alps being a description of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to Switzerland; and of the Alpine species of the adjacent mountain districts of France, Italy, & Austria including the Pyrenees / by Alfred W. Bennett. London: J.C. Nimmo, 1896. url p. 69.
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