Common Names in English:
Pepper Vine, Peppervine
, sometimes vines
, rarely small succulent trees
. Stems unarmed
, sometimes with conspicuous
, or bark
(in most species of Vitis) ; branches often swollen at 3-7-lacunar nodes; pith
continuous or interrupted
at nodes; tendrils
, or 4-12-branched (in Parthenocissus), usually leaf-opposed, rarely tendrils absent. Raphide
present in parenchymatous tissues
. Leaves simple, lobed
or unlobed, or digitately or pedately compound
to 1-3-pinnately compound, alternate, distichous, variously toothed
, commonly with multicellular
structures known as "pearl" glands
; stipules 2 or rarely absent, often caducous. Flowers small, with prophylls, in panicles, corymbs, or rarely spikes, often leaf-opposite, pseudo-terminal
, or axillary
(in Cayratia and Tetrastigma), actinomorphic
, hypogynous, 4- or 5(-7 as in Rhoicissus) -merous. Calyx with 4 or 5(-7) small teeth or lobes
or a continuous ring. Petals valvate
, 4 or 5(-7), free
or basally connate
, or distally connate forming a calyptra (e.g.
, in Vitis) . Stamens 4 or 5(-7), antepetalous
, dehiscing longitudinally, tetrasporangiate
or rarely bisporangiate
, ring-shaped, cupular, or gland-shaped. Ovary superior, 2-loculed; ovules 2 per locule; placentation axile
, appearing nearly basal, apotropous
, bitegmic, crassinucellar; style simple, connate; stigma discoid
or capitate, rarely 4-lobed (Tetrastigma), not papillate
. Fruit a berry, 1-4-seeded. Seeds endotestal, with an abaxial
and an adaxial
raphe with 2 furrows
, one on each side; embryo straight, small; endosperm oily, proteinaceous, copious
About 14 genera and ca. 900 species: worldwide, but mostly in tropical and subtropical regions; eight genera and 146 species (87 endemic, two introduced ) in China.
The family is important for grapes, wine, and raisins (especially Vitis vinifera, and several other species and hybrids of Vitis) . There are a few ornamental climbers in the genera Ampelopsis, Cissus, Parthenocissus, and Tetrastigma, of which Parthenocissus tricuspidata of China and Japan and P. quinquefolia of eastern North America are well-known examples. Some plants (e.g., Ampelopsis japonica, Cissus quadrangularis, and Tetrastigma hemsleyanum) are highly regarded medicines.
Lianas, woody, hermaphroditic
2- or 3-branched. Leaves simple
, 1- or 2-pinnately or palmately compound
. Inflorescence a corymbose
cyme, leaf-opposed or pseudoterminal, often at tips
of tendrils. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx saucer-shaped
. Petals 5, free
. Disk well developed, margin
. Stamens 5. Style conspicuous
; stigma inconspicuously expanded. Berry spherical
, 1-4-seeded. Seed obovoid
, apex rounded
; cross-section of endosperm M-shaped.
About 30 species: Asia, Central and North America, with most species in E Asia and two species in SW Asia; 17 species (13 endemic) in China.
Habit: Vine , Shrub • Growth Form: Multiple Stem • Shape and Orientation: Climbing
Flowers: Bloom Period: Late Spring • Flower Color: Green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Low • Fruit/Seed Color: Black • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 0.1 • Size: 12-15' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Rapid • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,181 meters (0 to 13,717 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Low • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 4.0 • Maximum pH: 8.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -13 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 110 • Cold Hardiness: 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Vitanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Aster carolinianus Walt. • Lasallea caroliniana (Walt.) Semple & L. Brouillet • Virgulus carolinianus (Walt.) Reveal & Keener • Vitis arborea L.
Publishing author : Koehne Publication : Deut. Dendrol. 400 1893
Members of the genus Ampelopsis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. aconitifolia (Monkshood Vine) · A. arborea (Pepper Vine) · A. brevipedunculata (Amur Pepper-Vine) · A. cordata (Heart-Leaf Ampelopsis) · A. humulifolia (Ampelopsis) · A. mexicana (Mexican Peppervine)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652170
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28631
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13743866
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:67408-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 317138
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28631
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 67407-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDVIT01010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: AMAR5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 20054
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- Mean = 96.370 meters (316.175 feet), Standard Deviation = 251.750 based on 1,089 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]